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Living and dying by Netanyahu’s ‘forever’ sword

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This is part of Marc H. Ellis’s “Exile and the Prophetic” feature for Mondoweiss. To read the entire series visit the archive page.

This week I was invited to speak in Bethlehem at a conference “Mission in the Context of Empire: A Call for Global Theological Resistance in Palestine.” I was asked to address Jewish theological perspectives on the liberation of Palestine. Though I am unable to attend the conference, the topic during this time of upheaval has heightened importance.

Thinking Jewish and theologically, I believe Jews have reached yet another crossroads in the ongoing saga of Israel-Palestine. In light of the current tensions, raising high the beautiful elements of the Rabbinic tradition is no longer helpful. Despite Prime Minister Netanyahu’s accusations of Palestinian participation in the Holocaust, and perhaps because of his misguided incitement, appeals to the Holocaust and for security in a hostile anti-Jewish world increasingly ring hollow.

Though interfaith prayer vigils and pilgrimages continue to gather in Jerusalem and other parts of the Holy Land, their weakness is obvious. Is it also wrong to continue on as if we only understood each other better, Jews and Palestinians would reconcile their way into a just future?

The reckoning that should have come after Israel’s latest decimation of Gaza, hasn’t. The reckoning that should have come after Israel’s latest settlement construction and incitement on the ground, hasn’t. The scenes of Jewish mobs marauding in Jerusalem and the West Bank, known around the world, hasn’t occasioned a reckoning either. When is enough, enough? When will the international community, when will we, say enough?

No matter the claims of religious adherents, theology without empire at its beck and call is ineffectual. Anti-empire theology lacks guns and tanks. It cannot tear down the walls that surrounds much of Palestine, including such noted cities as Bethlehem and parts of Jerusalem. Nonetheless, since theology is often at empire’s right hand, theology set against the injustices of empire is important. Theology against empire can hold fast, speak the truth, witness over the long haul. It can prepare a future beyond empire.

The sun sets on every empire. A Star of David-wrapped empire cannot escape this fate. Nonetheless, Palestine will not be liberated on our lifetime, if by liberation is meant a full Palestinian state or equal rights within a bi-national unitary Israel-Palestine state. For the years ahead, both the two-state and one-state options to resolve the Israeli-Palestine conflagration are an imagined hope. Our time is a time of waiting. With much suffering. And much more to come.

This is the meaning of Prime Minister Netanyahu’s declaration with reference to the occupied Palestinians territories a few days ago: “At this time we need to control all the territory for the foreseeable future.” Netanyahu pushed back against those who believe there is a “magic wand” to solve Israel’s situation. Netanyahu’s conclusion referring to Israel is stark: “If I am asked if we will forever live by the sword – yes.”

No person, religion or nation lives by the sword forever. Empires forget the obvious corollary of living by the sword. They rarely acknowledge the question if the inevitable dying by the sword makes the empire worthwhile while it lasts.

Empire seldom sees a way beyond the sword. Though empires never predict their demise, demise defines their power. Living by the sword “forever” is the feverish response to the demise lurking right around empire’s corner. Hence, empire’s use of force escalates after empire’s has defeated its appointed adversary. For empire no subjugation of the defeated is enough. More subjugation is always needed.

The alarm bells surrounding the recent state of emergency gripping Israel and the Palestinians is Jewish state power exerting itself ever more forcefully over a subjugated Palestinian people. Yet this state of emergency is hardly what we usually think of as an emergency, as an exceptional event that needs immediate attention after which the pattern of natural flourishing life returns.

A recent action alert from the YWCA of Jerusalem added “endless” to the state of emergency Palestinians are experiencing. When an endless state of emergency becomes normal, when emergency becomes the ordinary, then “endless” and “emergency” lose their meaning. Palestinians do live under an endless state of emergency. This has become their normal way of life.

The Palestinian normal endless state of emergency has taken different forms since the birth of the state of Israel in 1948. However, it all started with Israel’s creation. There is a straight line from Israel’s emergency creation to the emergency today. This straight line, with extensions, will continue for the foreseeable future.

Are the commitments of conference-goers, churches, NGO’s, the United Nations and individual nation-states, all of whom repeatedly register their complaints about Israel’s occupation, also part of the normal endless state of emergency we witness in Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Gaza and beyond? With time-lapse photography of Bethlehem, for example, moving from the beginning of the 20th century until today, we recognize that the normal endless state of emergency is reaching a terminus. Less and less land, continuing economic de-development, enclosure and now ghettoization, with militarization as far as the eye can see – these are easily recognizable signs of the end.

These signs of the end should be clear to Jews. Though heated discussions continue as to the relation of Israel’s brutality and Israel’s emergence as an apartheid state, for Jews it is more helpful to see a city like Bethlehem through a Jewish rather than a South African historical lens. Through the lens of Jewish history, where others see apartheid, Jews see the Warsaw Ghetto.

This image is limited. It is not meant as an analogy to the Nazi Holocaust. No one in their right mind believes that the Palestinians citizens of Bethlehem will wind up like the Jews of Warsaw. Nonetheless, the reflection on Jewish history is important and dissenting Jews, including Jewish Israelis, have been referencing past Jewish ghettos in relation to Israel’s oppression of Palestinians for decades. These historical references point to the great reversal of Jewish life, one that will be difficult, if not impossible, to overturn. It has to be the originating point of contemporary Jewish theology.

After the Holocaust and after Israel and what Israel has done and is doing to the Palestinian people, Jewish theology today begins with the suffering of Palestinians at the hands of Israel and enabling Jews around the world. Any Jewish theology that begins elsewhere is a deflection.

If as a Jewish theologian, I begin with historical understanding of empire and then, moving Jewishly, see Bethlehem through the lens of the Warsaw Ghetto, the question of a Jewish theological perspective on the liberation of Palestine takes on a specific and haunting shape. What does the Jewish theology of liberation I first wrote in about in the mid-1980s say from this vantage point?

Like other ghettos in Jewish history, the Bethlehem Ghetto is surrounded by a wall, a hostile population and a heavily armed military. This time, however, the ghetto dwellers are Palestinian; they live and die on the other side of Jewish power.

The great reversal of Jews being oppressed and now being the oppressor has been discussed, parsed and explained in many ways. Often the analogy of the abused child becoming the adult abuser is offered. Yet psychological reasoning about Israel’s oppression of the Palestinians has reached its terminus. It has become part of normal endless state of emergency.

Does continuing such discussions enable this incredibly destructive, violent, ghettoizing normal? From the Jewish side, keeping the Bethlehem Ghetto in mind, a recent video showed a rabbi from a group known as Rabbis from Human Rights being pursued by a Jewish settler wielding a knife. The rabbi was protecting Palestinians from marauding Jewish settlers in the West Bank, a good and dangerous deed. Since 1988, Rabbis for Human Rights has affirmed the goodness of Israel and sought its adherence to Jewish ethical values.

The question before Rabbis for Human Rights and other progressive Jewish individuals and groups who similarly call Jews to their ethical tradition remains. Has the appeal to Jewish ethics to be embedded in Israel as a Jewish state, even in its righteousness and courage, unwittingly become a tool of empire? Such appeals mostly provide an outlet for limited Jewish dissent without impacting Israeli state power as the Bethlehem Ghetto becomes permanent.

Though controversial even on the Jewish Left, a Jewish theological perspective on the liberation of Palestine cannot shy away from this question. Do ethical Jews, rabbis and lay people, progressive religious and secular Jews alike, provide a rationale to convince other Jews to pursue the liberation of the Bethlehem Ghetto? Or do they, and here I include myself, unwittingly, act to preserve Israel’s oppression by channeling and limiting dissent to the “protection” of Palestinians who are destined under the Israeli system to be subjugated? If the best of Jewish theology and secular activism, grounded in the desire to protect Palestinians and limit Israel’s injustice, is inadequate, is there anything within Jewish theology or Jewish life in general that can confront the ever-expanding and ghettoizing state of Israel?

So many Jewish efforts to confront Israeli power have been launched in Israel and America over the last decades. There has been and remains a civil war between Jews of Conscience and Empire Jews or, better, between Jews who seek to embody the Jewish prophetic where community and equality is stressed and Jews who seek to adopt a Constantinian sensibility of power for Jews over others.

The struggle between prophetic Jews and Constantinian Jews is epic. Rooted in the Bible, the Jewish civil war is ongoing and intense. However the permanent ghettoization of Palestinians signals a turning point in Jewish history. Does it as well point to a terminus in Jewish history, where Jews, once known as ethical stalwarts, have now become the warriors that pursued Jews over the millennia?

If Jews, in direct action and through enablement of Israel’s empire, have ghettoized Palestinians, Jewish theology is caught in this Jewish civil war which, like the Palestinian situation, has become the normal endless state of emergency. The only way out it seems is to announce the end of the Jewish civil war by Jews aligning themselves with Palestinians as a united front against the Jewish establishment in Israel and America.

Theologically-speaking, coming into solidarity with the Palestinian people means a return to the indigenous prophetic roots of the people Israel rather than a return to the land. That the prophetic is the indigenous of the people Israel is obvious within the Biblical rendering of the origins of the Jewish people. The Exodus is the place to start with the prophetic; a liberating God choosing an enslaved people whose destiny, in the words of the Biblical scholar, Norman Gottwald, was to create a socially equalitarian, decentralized tribal confederacy in the land of Canaan. When that project is troubled and ultimately dismissed by Israel’s rulers, God calls the prophets to judge Israel’s betrayal. The betrayal of the social project, noted explicitly in Israel’s creation of a society where the widows, orphans, strangers and the poor are marginalized, is linked directly to God’s project, presence and protection.

With the Biblical prophets, Israel’s betrayal is potentially and often concretely a disaster for Israel itself. Within the Biblical paradigm, how far off base the contemporary state of Israel is, is telling. In the modern sense this is true as well. Jewish ethical principles with the Biblical God and today, after the Holocaust, mostly without God, say a decided “no” to what Israel has done and is doing to the Palestinian people. Yet the power of the state of Israel and its enablers continues unabated. A God-rescue isn’t around the corner.

Today a Jewish theology of liberation can only embrace the naked and unadorned indigenous Jewish prophetic of ancient Israel. Yet in that embrace the evolution of the prophetic must be embraced as well. Without God, Jews can only witness to what was, the memory of a God of liberation that acted in history, and what is, a spiraling downward of Jewish history without redress. The Jewish prophetic thus exists today within the darkest reaches of a Jewish history gone terribly wrong.

In the abyss of Jewish history, Jews must begin again – with Palestinians. This is a sharply-focused way of understanding what I realized many years ago: That the only way to be faithful as a Jew today is to embrace the Jewish covenant, a covenant that has fled from the precincts of Jewish power.

That the Jewish covenant, and thus the Jewish prophetic, reside in the Palestinians ghettos Jews have created is difficult for most Jews to contemplate. Perhaps this is why Netanyahu’s “forever” sword signals a fight within and outside Jewish history until the end.

Marc H. Ellis

Marc H. Ellis is Professor of History and Jewish Studies and Director of the Center for the Study of the Global Prophetic. His latest book is Finding Our Voice: Embodying the Prophetic and Other Misadventures.

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16 Responses

  1. JLewisDickerson on October 28, 2015, 1:38 pm

    RE: “From the Jewish side, keeping the Bethlehem Ghetto in mind, a recent video showed a rabbi from a group known as Rabbis from Human Rights being pursued by a Jewish settler wielding a knife. The rabbi was protecting Palestinians from marauding Jewish settlers in the West Bank, a good and dangerous deed. Since 1988, Rabbis for Human Rights has affirmed the goodness of Israel and sought its adherence to Jewish ethical values.” ~ Marc Ellis

    SEE: “Jews protect Palestinians in harvest of hate” ~ By Donald Macintyre in Awarta, West Bank, The Independent, 10 Oct 2008
    Israelis cross religious divide to shelter olive farmers from settlers’ attacks

    [EXCERPTS] . . . Born in Tel Aviv, Ms Siew served in the army, took a university degree, then a teacher’s diploma. Thirty-six years ago, she took the tough decision to emigrate to London, telling her parents: “I won’t come back until there’s peace.” Ms Siew, who is now 64, remains an Israeli citizen but now lives with her British husband in Hebden Bridge. She has kept to her word, except that each autumn she comes back to stay in her hometown with her relatives and spends each day of the two-month harvest season picking olives on Palestinian farmland in the West Bank.
    And Ms Siew does that for a purpose. Up on the ridge above us, you can see the red roofs of Itamar, a notably hard-line Jewish settlement, and she is here to help protect the Palestinian farmers from the threat of settler violence which has so often scarred the olive harvests.
    . . . Last year, she was in a group in the South Hebron Hills confronted by settlers who fired shots from a pistol and an M16 assault rifle, despite the presence of the army and police. “Then one of the soldiers said, ‘Look, one of them is coming down with a jug of water for you’. The settler emptied the jug over me. It was full of human shit.” . . .


  2. Mooser on October 28, 2015, 2:07 pm

    “In the abyss of Jewish history, Jews must begin again – with Palestinians.”

    Anybody asked the Palestinians if they want to jump into the abyss of Jewish history with us, so that we can “begin again”?
    Maybe they would be satisfied just to see some of us leave them alone. Maybe instead of our Jewish “covenants” with God, we could think about laws and stuff.

    Maybe we don’t get to “begin again”, maybe we just fucked up really bad, and will have to pay the price.

    • inbound39 on October 28, 2015, 5:22 pm

      Mooser…. I like your words….no-one likes having someone impose their beliefs upon them. Beliefs are just that…beliefs….not fact. They are true for the believer as that is what they choose to believe is true. Israel went down the wrong path the moment it decided God was the real estate agent of Palestine…..not based in fact at all…..that is where they fucked up really badly and since have been attempting badly to convince and convert the World. No-one is buying. Israel is in its death throws and nothing other than something like a mass invasion of Israel will solve the conflict.

  3. Ossinev on October 28, 2015, 2:51 pm

    “Nonetheless, Palestine will not be liberated on our lifetime, if by liberation is meant a full Palestinian state or equal rights within a bi-national unitary Israel-Palestine state. For the years ahead, both the two-state and one-state options to resolve the Israeli-Palestine conflagration are an imagined hope.”

    I confess to being a little more hopeful than this. The Internet and social media is doing it`s job in informing the civilised world at a rapidly growing pace of Zionist Israel`s atrocities and hypocrisies. A younger and more conscionable generation of American Jews will soon represent a force that AIPAC/Adelson et al money simply cannot buy.

    With BDS expanding on a daily basis and impacting on “normal “Jewish Israeli life ( the recent UK Academic boycott is a good example ) the sense of “pariahship” will really start to kick in and the rats will sooner rather than later start to bolt the ship. clutching their second passports. The knock on effect in terms of demographics and economics will be irreversible and will lead to a swift and thoroughly deserved corrosion and destruction of the Zionist dream.

    All this can be hastened by BOYCOTTING APARTHEID ISRAEL

  4. diasp0ra on October 28, 2015, 4:32 pm

    “Palestine will not be liberated on our lifetime, if by liberation is meant a full Palestinian state or equal rights within a bi-national unitary Israel-Palestine state.”

    I respectfully disagree.

    If anything, 2011 should show how the status quo can switch practically overnight. Same with the fall of the Soviet Union, same with so many events in history that people said were impossible or would need centuries to happen.

  5. pabelmont on October 28, 2015, 6:10 pm

    One really wonders how flexible Jewish religious values, principles, goals, actually are. If human rights for people other than Jews is a permissible goal even if not a mandatory goal supported by historical Jewish religious thought (and it certainly does not appear to be mandatory from Israeli rabbinical pronouncements) then run a human-rights-for-Palestinians prophetic Jewish rebirth up the flag pole and see who salutes. Right now, “screw everybody but Jews” seems the overriding Jewish “religious” position.

    Imperialism can be religious in a way. Israelis seem to “believe in” war and cruelty forever in the way people believe in religions.

    And when the imperium declares someone else to be an enemy, then a position demanding support for human rights for that enemy is pretty hard to get people behind. And that Israeli imperium is felt very much in the USA, and not just among Jews.

    I’d like to see a demand made to American rabbis to defend on religious grounds cruelty and refusal for human rights toward Palestinians. Maybe they can come up with a convincing story showing how ancient Jewish teachings demand the sacrifice of virgins, etc.

  6. lysias on October 28, 2015, 6:50 pm

    Richard Silverstein reminds us that the saying “He who lives by the sword. . .” has a second clause.

  7. ziusudra on October 29, 2015, 5:19 am

    Greetings Marc,
    I’m really moved when you write & i’m in your corner.

    As for Theologians, they theorize in all Abramic Religions.
    Theologians bring out the best of their Deities interpreting
    & comforting to their followers. They have an important
    spiritual place in any Society, even for Apostates like myself.
    Do their followers behave as Theologians do?
    Theologians have nothing to do with Religion & they came
    after the Prophet & Deities. They are Philosophers & Poets
    of such. They fill the spot of the Prophets & Deities, who are
    not present.
    Marc, Judaism does not have a Judaic Deity, they have a Judaic
    Religion begun in 70AD & completed in 800AD with their Torah, Talmud & Mitzvah as their mass of theological Liturgy, Dogma & Doctrine. Judaic Theologists must come to terms with the biblical figures El as in Israel & Yahweh to & for World Jewry. Judaic Theology has never satisfactually clear up this descrepency.
    Rabbinical culture & tradition was begun by the progressive Pharisees for its followers to take part in daily debate of Theology in 150BC passing it all on to the Rabbis first in 200AD.
    A helpful theological perspective is doomed today, due to the strict demands of the Talmud & Mitzvah yoked onto Judaic followers only allowing inclusiveness for their own; a tribal Religion.Their hands have been tied since the completion in 800AD.
    Tolerance was stopped as Priest Hilkiah & King Josiah set up Yahweh over EL in 622BC.
    Long after Priest Scribe Ezra put the Shem Semites in their place over all other Semites who still worshipped the Canaanite Religion with Sumerian named Deities, where they returned to the Canaanite named ones going according to his perspectives in 456BC of a different Religion leding towards Monotheism!
    Judaic Theologians have it hard today, unless they ignore the Talmud & Mitzvah.
    One mo’ once, very enjoyable & informative, much tks,

  8. Louieknoxville on October 29, 2015, 9:57 am

    It is time to hit the reset button…..
    The crystal clear and elegant wording of Israel’s Declaration of Establishment written by the founders of the modern state of Israel in 1948 speaks to the purity and, perhaps, prescience of thought of the Zionist movement.…/declaration%20of…
    This defining document freely and unilaterally declares that the re-born state of Israel “will foster the development of the country for the benefit of all its inhabitants; it will be based on freedom, justice and peace as envisaged by the prophets of Israel; it will ensure complete equality of social and political rights to all its inhabitants irrespective of religion, race or sex; it will guarantee freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and culture; it will safeguard the Holy Places of all religions; and it will be faithful to the principles of the Charter of the United Nations.”.
    The founders significantly spoke of “inhabitants”, not “citizens”…language that transcends the concept of an exclusively Jewish state and benevolently blurs borders
    The founders freely and unilaterally chose to call their country “Israel”, not “Judea and Samaria” and, without conditioning their decision on the approval of their neighbors they boldly referenced UN Resolution 181 as the legal nexus of their re-born state
    When Israel published their Declaration of Establishment, they created their own standard for the world to judge them by and, perhaps, laid out the roadmap for the solution to the conflict which they knew would ensue.
    It is time to declare the Two State solution dead and embrace Israel’s founding document as the basis for a Single State confederation.

    • Mooser on October 29, 2015, 6:19 pm

      “It is time to declare the Two State solution dead and embrace Israel’s founding document as the basis for a Single State confederation.”

      Well, first there’s a lot of reparations to be paid, territory to be vacated, and trials which must be held, and then maybe the Palestinians could get in on writing some “founding documents”

      Give it all to Israel, as presently constituted, and hope for the best, based on some promises (“as envisioned by the Prophets”? Oh please) in the “founding documents”? Doesn’t sound likely.

      What you just said was: give the entire place to the Israeli government, with Israeli good will the only security for Palestinians..

  9. ivri on October 29, 2015, 11:05 am

    Well, I actually see today`s Jewish revival in a much more positive way. It can be titled as “The comeback of the Jews to the last round”. Erstwhile big competitors that vastly outnumbered Jews – in comparison to whom it always seemed that the Jews have no chance (and were indeed always persecuted by them) are in a rapid and apparently irreversible decline.
    Europe for sure lost the world`s center-podium – where it had a dominant role for ages – and even its recent “last try” in the form of the EU is clearly faltering. Indeed, very dark clouds already loom over it. Arabia is in tatters, almost in its entirety, and symptomatic to that is how the Palestinian issue, which once a central agenda for it has almost vanished there – hardly mentioned by anybody of importance.
    While Israel is thriving and a mini superpower on its own, maintaining excellent and intimate ties with the power centers of this world – be they the US establishment, Modi`s India, Abe`s Japan, Canada and Australia, key people in the UK, and many others (there are admittedly a lot of midgets against it but quality matters in today`s world more than quantity).
    Now who would have guessed this outcome – taking place right in front of our eyes – anytime in the past?

    • Mooser on October 29, 2015, 6:10 pm

      “Erstwhile big competitors that vastly outnumbered Jews – in comparison to whom it always seemed that the Jews have no chance (and were indeed always persecuted by them) are in a rapid and apparently irreversible decline.”

      And it’s only a matter of time till mankind becomes extinct, and we inherit the earth!

      And meanwhile our Jewish birthrate and the number of Jews prepared to support Israel in intransigence, or at all, grows like a house a fire.

  10. RayJosephCormier on October 29, 2015, 5:32 pm

    Who listens to the Prophets?
    The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, [and] Hezekiah, kings of Judah. א חֲזוֹן יְשַׁעְיָהוּ בֶן אָמוֹץ אֲשֶׁר חָזָה עַל יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִָם בִּימֵי עֻזִּיָּהוּ יוֹתָם אָחָז יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ מַלְכֵי יְהוּדָה:

    Hear, O heavens, and give ear, O earth, for the Lord has spoken; Children I have raised and exalted, yet they have rebelled against Me. בשִׁמְעוּ שָׁמַיִם וְהַאֲזִינִי אֶרֶץ כִּי יְהֹוָה דִּבֵּר בָּנִים גִּדַּלְתִּי וְרוֹמַמְתִּי וְהֵם פָּשְׁעוּ בִי:

    An ox knows his owner and a donkey his master’s crib; Israel does not know, my people does not consider. גיָדַע שׁוֹר קֹנֵהוּ וַחֲמוֹר אֵבוּס בְּעָלָיו יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יָדַע עַמִּי לֹא הִתְבּוֹנָן:

    Woe to a sinful nation, a people heavy with iniquity, evildoing seed, corrupt children. They forsook the Lord; they provoked the Holy One of Israel; they drew backwards. דהוֹי | גּוֹי חֹטֵא עַם כֶּבֶד עָו‍ֹן זֶרַע מְרֵעִים בָּנִים מַשְׁחִיתִים עָזְבוּ אֶת יְהֹוָה נִאֲצוּ אֶת קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל נָזֹרוּ אָחוֹר:

    Why are you beaten when you still continue to rebel? Every head is [afflicted] with illness and every heart with malaise. העַל מֶה תֻכּוּ עוֹד תּוֹסִיפוּ סָרָה כָּל רֹאשׁ לָחֳלִי וְכָל לֵבָב דַּוָּי:

    From the sole of the foot until the head there is no soundness-wounds and contusions and lacerated sores; they have not sprinkled, neither have they been bandaged, nor was it softened with oil. ומִכַּף רֶגֶל וְעַד רֹאשׁ אֵין בּוֹ מְתֹם פֶּצַע וְחַבּוּרָה וּמַכָּה טְרִיָּה לֹא זֹרוּ וְלֹא חֻבָּשׁוּ וְלֹא רֻכְּכָה בַּשָּׁמֶן:

    As to the incitement, both Jewish and Palestinian, over the physical property of Temple Mount, it has nothing to do with service to God, but with the vanity of men.

    So says the Lord, “The heavens are My throne, and the earth is My footstool; which is the house that you will build for Me, and which is the place of My rest? אכֹּה אָמַר יְהֹוָה הַשָּׁמַיִם כִּסְאִי וְהָאָרֶץ הֲדֹם רַגְלָי אֵי זֶה בַיִת אֲשֶׁר תִּבְנוּ לִי וְאֵי זֶה מָקוֹם מְנוּחָתִי:

    And all these My hand made, and all these have become,” says the Lord. “But to this one will I look, to one poor and of crushed spirit, who hastens to do My bidding. בוְאֶת כָּל אֵלֶּה יָדִי עָשָׂתָה וַיִּהְיוּ כָל אֵלֶּה נְאֻם יְהֹוָה וְאֶל זֶה אַבִּיט אֶל עָנִי וּנְכֵה רוּחַ וְחָרֵד עַל דְּבָרִי:

  11. Mooser on October 29, 2015, 6:24 pm

    “The struggle between prophetic Jews and Constantinian Jews is epic.”

    C,c,con,c..Constantine was a Jew? Well, who knew! And founded a Jewish religious school of thought. Did not know that.

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