They actually don’t have the right to petition their land claim. In the 1970s the state started taking claims to review Bedouin land ownership that pre-dated the state of Israel. Around 3,000 claims were accepted, 300 processed, and then the rest were frozen. At the end of the decade the state started filing counter-claims on the same pieces of property, big chunks of the Negev. The state employed the Ottoman “dead lands” law and said because the Bedouins were not cultivating the grounds for five-years, the state could seize ownership. That usurped most of the land from the original 3,000 claims.
Then over the next few decades the state formed a number of committees to again address Bedouin land claims. Every committee recommended processing the petitions that were already accepted by the courts, but never reviewed, until the Prawer Commission. The Prawer committee devised the Prawer Plan that I have reported extensively on. Prawer says trash the 1970s claims and develop a new process that only* applies to Bedouins (so it’s applied on an ethnic basis). In this new procedure the state will not review: property deeds, or tax records including property taxes paid to the State of Israel, when determining land ownership. Instead the state will match land claims with aerial photographs taken by the British Mandate during the 1940s. If the photos show land cultivation, at most, the Bedouin owner can receive a title for 50% of the plot.
So no, the Bedouins cannot file land claims. They are denied this right which Jewish-Israelis enjoy and instead, if Prawer passes, will be subject to a process that is estimated to evict 30,000 out of 80,000 people. If Prawer does not pass, the 1970s claims and the court’s willingness to review any Bedouin land claims will still be frozen.
Right to vote: they do not have the right to vote in local elections* and in some instances, Bedouins have reported they are denied the right to vote in national elections because they do not have official addresses.
Freely worship: yeh, they can do that.
Protest peacefully: yes, and they do. Their protests more recently likely spurred a delay in passing Prawer, although it’s worth noting their demonstrations have never led to a policy change. They are still subject to the same bar of filing claims since the state’s founding.
Squatting on state land: since the state began filing counter claims to the land where the unrecognized villages are located, yes all of these properties are officially owned by the state and administered through the Israeli Lands Association. However, every government committee has acknowledged that the Bedouins do have a legitimate claim to at least some of the land. In an early draft of Prawer the state even recognized Bedouins as “indigenous peoples” of the Negev.
“Squatters” is a term in political discourse, but in actual government policy, generally Bedouin are seen as people who have unresolved claims an live in villages not zoned for residential use, ear-marking all of their homes for demolition by law, even if a specific demolition order has not been issued.
In any case in Israel “squatting” per se, is not illegal. Bedouins and Jewish-Israelis alike can legally live on land in shanty towns so long as they do not have hook ups to services. So when you say that they are “squatting illegally” that’s not accurate. Their village is “unrecognized” so certain building materials are illegal to use, but actual residency on state owned land is not. As far as I know, only if the state owned land is leased to an entity for use, like a factory or a condo, or a park, or if they area is labeled a closed military zone, then an eviction for all residential use can by carried out.
All in all, Bedouins do have some rights afforded by the state, but essential rights (water, health, sanitation, filing a land claim), no they don’t have those.
Dead dogs: dead animals do not have any specific rights, but the cemetery where they are resting peacefully is serviced in ways that Bedouins are not do to all of the above.