Just read wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhimmi , for example:
"There were a number of restrictions on dhimmis. In a modern sense the dhimmis would be described as second-class citizens.
Although dhimmis were allowed to perform their religious rituals, they were obliged to do so in a manner not conspicuous to Muslims. Display of non-Muslim religious symbols, such as crosses or icons, was prohibited on buildings and on clothing (unless mandated as part of distinctive clothing). Loud prayers were forbidden, as were the ringing of church bells and the blowing of the shofar. They were also not allowed to build or repair churches without Muslim consent. Moreover, dhimmis were not allowed to seek converts among Muslims. In the Mamluk Egypt, where non-Mamluk Muslims were not allowed to ride horses and camels, dhimmis were prohibited even from riding donkeys inside cities. Sometimes, Muslim rulers issued regulations requiring dhimmis to attach distinctive signs to their houses."
Of course, this terse language needs an interpretation. Dhimmis were not allowed to ride horses to that their heads would not be higher that a head of a Muslim. Muslim men could marry a non-Muslim woman, their children would have to be brought up as Muslims. Muslim women were not allowed to marry a non-Muslim. Muslims could not convert to other religions under punishment of death. There were other rituals of humiliation. For example, Muslim children were encouraged to throw stones at Jews, and Jews could not respond - only cover or run away.
Dhimmi status was also very shaky - any time they could be put out side of law. This, for example, happened to Armenians in Ottoman empire. Turks declared all them traitors - just read about Armenian genocide.