From a historical perspective, until the mass murder of European Jewry, most Jews were not Zionists. In 1927 more Jews left Palestine than arrived.
Orthodox Jews established Agudat Yisrael in 1912. It is still a political party in Israel, but in practice has made its peace with the State of Israel. Among the ultra-Orthodox, the Satmar Chasidim still maintain active opposition to Zionism.
At the other end of the Jewish theological spectrum, as Carolyn Karcher’s introduction to the book discusses, the 1885 Pittsburgh Platform of Reform Judaism forthrightly opposed Zionism. Reform opposition to Zionism was moderated somewhat in the 1937 Columbus Platform. But American Reform Judaism did not embrace Zionism ideologically until after the 1967 War, although some prominent rabbis and individuals were active Zionists much earlier. What Orthodox and Reform Judaism have in common is that they understand Jews primarily as a religious community.
A contrasting view was presented by the General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia, an anti-Zionist, secular, Yiddishist, revolutionary socialist organization. The Bund was established in 1897, the same year as the World Zionist Organization. The Bund believed that the Jews of Eastern Europe constituted a people (they knew nothing about the Jews of the Middle East and North Africa, India, etc.), that Yiddish was their national language, and that Eastern Europe was their homeland. In the first years of the 20th century the Bund was the largest socialist organization in the Russian Empire. It also had a large following in interwar Poland and was transplanted to the United States over the course of the 20th century.
Much of what the Bund believed is no longer relevant, and there are few, if any, actual members of the Bund alive today. But its understanding of Jews as a diasporic people (or an ethnic group in contemporary American terms) defined by a common culture which does not necessarily include religion and whose political loyalties should be to the country in which they live has much to recommend it. This formulation leaves open the possibility of a spiritual or emotional connection to the Land of Israel (but not the existing State of Israel) for those who desire it.