Exactly. A wonderful soaring speech. In 1968.
But Ella Baker was born in 1904, and started her civil rights activism when she was 16 [I think she already at Howard University but don't hold me to it...I don't feel like scouring my computer to get the details] in 1920, nine years before MLK was born.
When MLK was 11 years old, Baker was excoriating the NAACP in Harlem (1940) for their lack of effort, and faulting them for using the wrong approach. She advocated non-violence, and she did not agree with diminishing the efforts of rich white women in fur coats who were drawn to the movement. She said we need these people, they are a bridge. She was fiercely independent in her thinking and strategy.
One of her phrases was, "Strong people don't need strong leaders." Another, "Martin didn't make the movement. The movement made Martin."
MLK came to prominence within the movement in 1954. He was a man: acceptable. But understand the times. She was black and a woman. The femaleness of herself was more of detriment to her prominence than her blackness.
The recorded interviews with the original civil rights figures of the 60s in Charles Payne's book are a testament to her greatness. She organized the Freedom Riders, founded all the major alphabets of the civil rights movement, like SNCC, and organized the lunchroom protesters. She trained every single one of the civil rights lights that we remember.
After the Civil Rights Act was passed, few Americans knew the history of what Blacks had been through, nor did they care. So Coretta king was free to craft one that they could believe. Because of that wonderful speech, most Americans are willing to believe that MLK was the driving force behind the movement. He was not. She was. She is given short shrift because she was quiet, level-headed, and effective. And a woman.
But every single civil rights poobah still alive in the 1990s as Charles Payne recorded them for his book treats her as the singular god of their movement. Their deep reverence and awe is real.
The Muslim Registry called NSEERS (National Security Entry-Exit Registration System) was created on Sept 10, 2002. It was an abysmal failure, but Obama didn't get rid of it, did he.
The program had three parts.
First, it required non-citizens to register when they entered the US -- a process that included fingerprinting, photo taking and interrogation.
Second, it mandated that these people, as well as others already in the US, register and regularly check in with immigration officials. [This requirement has been in place for all green card recipients from time immemorial, but only once a year.]
Third, it kept track of those leaving the country to make sure that temporary guests did not remain illegally. Violators were arrested, fined and even deported.
All males 16 years of age or older from 25 countries were forced to register.
Although no religious groups were explicitly targeted, all but one was a Muslim-majority country.
The countries included: Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Egypt, Eritrea, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen. The sole exception: North Korea.
Trump intends to add Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan.
The Brennan Center for Justice wrote today:
Federal courts previously found the NSEERS program constitutional, but they also warned that they would reach a different conclusion if there were evidence that the program was based on religious animus. . . .
And in the aftermath of 9/11, courts were willing to accept NSEERS as an emergency stopgap. Today, however, the United States has an automated entry-exist system for all foreign visitors (US-VISIT), rendering the NSEERS registration process “redundant, inefficient, and unnecessary,” according to the Department of Homeland Security’s own assessment.