Stop the demolitions in Jerusalem!

Israel/Palestine
on 56 Comments
Nir Barkat

Nir Barkat

The “judaization” of Jerusalem and the West Bank continues apace, despite the so-called “peace process.” This week the Israeli government demolished a large apartment block in Beit Hanina, bringing the total number of Palestinian structures demolished in East Jerusalem in 2013 to almost 100; about 400 people displaced from their homes (figures from ICAHD, OCHA, HRW and human rights groups).

At the same time that it announced the construction of yet another 1500 housing units in the illegal East Jerusalem settlement of Ramat Shlomo – and another 3500 in the West Bank –the Israeli government issued demolition orders for 2000 housing units in the nearby area of Ras al-Kahmis and the Shuafat refugee camp.

The government also announced plans to establish a “national park” on the lands of Isawiyeh and a-Tur, further fragmenting East Jerusalem communities and preventing their development, and the construction of a large new visitor center in the “City of David,” the settlers’ new name for Silwan, where the municipality intends to demolish 88 Palestinian homes to make way for yet another “national park.”

If the demolition of 2000 housing units of Ras al-Kahmis/Shuafat are carried out, 15,000 Palestinian residents will lose their homes. No less significant in the view of the Israeli government, they will be forced out of Jerusalem and will lose their right to live, work, pray and even enter the city. Demolitions of Palestinian homes lay at the very heart of Israel’s attempt to “judaize” Jerusalem and the West Bank, just as it does inside Israel as well. The process graphically illustrates how dry, bureaucratic urban policies can be used as effective mechanisms of repression.

Since 1967 the Israeli government has pursued a declared policy of maintaining a 72% majority of Jews over Palestinians in the city. Towards that end, it has not allowed Palestinians to build new homes, creating an artificial shortage of some 25,000 housing units in the Palestinian sector. (Palestinians, to put it mildly, are not able to access most of the Jewish neighborhoods). That induced shortage raises the price of renting or buying, and since 70% of the Palestinians live under the poverty line, they are forced to move outside of the Jerusalem borders to acquire affordable housing.

Now urbanites moving out of cities into nearby suburbs is a common worldwide phenomenon, but not for the Palestinians of Jerusalem. Although inhabiting the city for centuries, and despite the fact that Palestinian East Jerusalem has been formally annexed to Israel – as its capital city, no less – Palestinians are classified merely as “permanent residents,” not citizens. That means that if Palestinians are forced to seek affordable housing just outside the municipal borders in the West Bank, which Israeli policy is designed to do, they shift their “center of their life” from Jerusalem, thus losing their residence and the ability to even enter the city again. House demolitions area meant to prevent Palestinians from building “illegally,” and thus contribute to the housing shortage and forced expulsion of Palestinians from Jerusalem.

But wait– over the past few years the Jerusalem Municipality has allowed massive housing complexes to arise within its borders yet outside the Wall and checkpoints, in such no-man’s land as Ras Khamis and by the Shuafat refugee camp, where the 2000 demolition orders have been issued, or in Kufr Akab, a part of Jerusalem on the other side of the Kalandia checkpoint. By doing so, it set a trap. The plan, publicly discussed by Mayor Nir Barkat, was this: thousands of desperate Palestinian families would be allowed to move into high-rise apartment blocks beyond the Wall but still in Jerusalem, attracted by the affordable prices but in no danger of losing their Jerusalem residency. Once settled in, the government would declare that the Wall will henceforth constitute the municipal border, thus in one fell swoop ridding itself of tens of thousands of Arab residents by depriving them of their residency rights since the “center of their lives” is no more Jerusalem. The 72% majority is more or less preserved.

So why, then, the demolition orders?

What happened in my view was that Barkat was told that his plan is not legal and cannot work. In response, he has changed course and decided to demolish all these high-rise apartment blocs instead. (This is a charitable interpretation, since the Israeli authorities often wait until houses are finished and occupied before demolishing them, just to punish the inhabitants that much more.) Whatever the case, the process of judaization is served just the same. Having nowhere affordable or accessible to go inside Jerusalem, the Palestinians displaced will be forced out of the city to such nearby Arab neighborhoods as Anata, e-Ram, Zaim and Abu Dis, where they can be stripped legally of their Jerusalem residency.

Such are the political machinations behind the seemingly justified policy of demolishing “illegal” homes, a key element of a broader policy of ethnic cleansing proceeding steadily throughout the country from 1947 until this day.

As the common Israeli slogan has it: We never finished 1948. Not yet, at least.

(Jeff Halper is the Director of the Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions.)

About Jeff Halper

Jeff Halper is the Director of the Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions (ICAHD). He can be reached at [email protected]

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56 Responses

  1. Justpassingby
    November 3, 2013, 11:54 am

    Nothing but racism by Israel.

    • seafoid
      November 3, 2013, 4:49 pm

      They aren’t just demolishing Palestinian homes. They are demolishing whatever made Judaism worthwhile once, before Zionism.

      • just
        November 3, 2013, 4:57 pm

        And that is the pity, seafoid. How any Jewish person can personally associate with Zionism is beyond belief. It is a destructive and toxic ideology that is corruption of a beautiful faith.

        It’s a tragedy.

      • seafoid
        November 3, 2013, 4:58 pm

        And all the yeshiva students learning hatred by rote- none of them understand the book. The pity of it all .

      • thankgodimatheist
        November 3, 2013, 7:41 pm

        Pardon me you two, seafoid and Just but I’m yet to be initiated to the “beauty” and “worth” of it or of any of the Abrahamic faiths. Maybe not the right time to go there now but since you both brought it up.

  2. James Canning
    November 3, 2013, 11:54 am

    Great piece. And sad commentary on the current state of affairs in the West Bank.

  3. just
    November 3, 2013, 12:17 pm

    When will the international community act to preserve what little international law that is left? This is insane, grotesque and illegal. The Zionists simply do not respect any law at all. If they seize Jerusalem and ethnically cleanse it and are met with silence and more enabling by the US, I fear for the backlash that will come — too little, too late.

    This is more than provocation to another Intifada. It’s denying the indigenous Palestinians — Christian and Muslim and Agnostic– their inalienable rights.

  4. Sammar
    November 3, 2013, 2:06 pm

    I cannot for the life of me understand why the Palestinian leadership still trusts the US and why they take part in “peace talks”. It is so obvious that those talk are only intended to give Israel opportunity to continue its ethnic cleansing, its theft of land and the building of more settlements. I cant understand why they wont tell the US and Israel to take their peace talks and shove them. Why not bring their case to the UN and the ICC?
    The US is not a mediator, they are a facilitator for Israeli colonialism and the oppression of the Palestinians.
    So the US Congress is bought and paid for by Israel and the US president is either complicit or has to toe the line that AIPAC draws because of that. But what about the rest of the world?

    How long will they stand by and watch this charade? How long will they stand by
    and watch this horror show? They offer plenty of empty words of condemnation – why no actions?

    • just
      November 3, 2013, 2:11 pm

      Precisely.

      Well put, Sammar.

    • Justpassingby
      November 3, 2013, 2:45 pm

      “I cannot for the life of me understand why the Palestinian leadership”

      Why? Because PA is a puppet.

    • xanadou
      November 3, 2013, 2:54 pm

      The ICC does not have any political powers. Its sole purpose is to adjudicate disputes.

      The UN is only as effective as its member states. Among the latter there is not one government on the planet, not even among the Arab and other Muslim countries, with the iffy exception of Iran, no one with any power gives a damn about the Palestinians. Neither do the Palestinians’ reps, i.e., Abbas and his corrupt coterie. That you and I and most of humanity do care – is of zero consequence. We do not matter in our own countries. What hope do we have of prevailing on any international forum? (rhetorical) Our sole raison d’etre is to work, pay taxes, then die. Our lot is not that different from the Palestinians. Consider: the Congress is about to give an additional $500M of taxpayers’ money to Israel. No wonder US children and seniors have had their aid cut; there are settlements to be built and more wars to be lost. (bitter sarcasm)

      • HarryLaw
        November 3, 2013, 5:01 pm

        xanadou,@ “The ICC does not have any political powers. It’s sole purpose is to adjudicate disputes”
        I don’t think that is correct, in my opinion the ICC is an International Court, with all the powers it needs to prosecute individuals including senior Government officials like B Netanyahu for crimes like, planning and implementing the transfer of Israeli citizens into belligerent occupied territory contrary to the Geneva Conventions, reparations can also be secured via this court, Netanyahu would probably not answer a summons, nor would any Israeli Government official likely comply with any arrest warrant, but the moment that official was indited by the court, failure to attend the court would mean the official would be liable to be arrested the moment he or she arrived at another ICC member state, under the rules of universal jurisdiction. link to en.wikipedia.org

    • RoHa
      November 3, 2013, 8:24 pm

      “I cannot for the life of me understand why the Palestinian leadership still trusts the US”

      Do they?

    • Shingo
      November 4, 2013, 3:18 am

      I cannot for the life of me understand why the Palestinian leadership still trusts the US and why they take part in “peace talks”.

      It’s not a mystery. The US blackmails them by offering them billions in aid or withholding funds if they don’t play ball. It’s easy for us to say the Palestinians should be forthright and tell the Americans to get lost, but we’re not the ones starving.

  5. seafoid
    November 3, 2013, 2:42 pm

    Judaise seems the wrong word to describe ethnic cleansing.

    • Bumblebye
      November 3, 2013, 5:41 pm

      They’re planning to “Judaise” Temple Mount too, presenting a bill before the Knesset tomorrow (Monday):
      “Ynet 1 Nov by Akiva Novick — … Habayit Hayehudi faction is cooperating with the Religious Services Ministry to propose legislation which would allow Jews to openly pray on the Temple Mount, for the first time since the site was liberated in 1967.According to the special ordinance which was prepared by the legal department of the ministry, there would be set hours for daily Jewish prayer on the mount.
      link to http://www.ynetnews.com

      From Kate’s list yesterday.
      link to mondoweiss.net

      • Bumblebye
        November 3, 2013, 8:14 pm

        And probably wall off the Jordan Valley:
        link to 972mag.com

        which would put the West Bank bantustans under just as much of a siege situation as Gaza is under.

      • James Canning
        November 4, 2013, 2:12 pm

        Netanyahu may well have this in mind. Further subverting of national security interests of the American people, with help from his many rich Jewish pals in the US.

      • James Canning
        November 4, 2013, 2:13 pm

        Jews can do their praying on TM quietly, and secretly.

  6. NormanF
    November 3, 2013, 2:46 pm

    Jeff Halper hasn’t bothered to look at a map! Ramat Shlomo is in north Jerusalem west of the so-called Green Line. Its not anywhere in east Jerusalem and was part of Israel before 1967. If he lies about the geography of the city, you can be sure he lies about other stuff as well.

    Jerusalem has a Jewish majority since the 19th Century. There is no way it could be made more “Jewish.” The term “judaization” used by Arabs – is an anti-Semitic buzz term to imply Jews are outsiders in the city. Nothing could be further from the truth. Then again, just how much credibility does Halper have when he parrots Arab propaganda that ignores the Jewish role in Jerusalem? And it says a lot about Mondoweiss that it swallows this without doing the slightest fact-checking!

    • Shmuel
      November 3, 2013, 3:41 pm

      Ramat Shlomo is in north Jerusalem west of the so-called Green Line. Its not anywhere in east Jerusalem and was part of Israel before 1967.

      Nonsense. Ramat Shlomo (Shu’afat Ridge) is north (on the eastern side) of the Green Line, and was under Jordanian rule before 1967. You may be right that it was not East Jerusalem (i.e. within Mandatory or Jordanian municipal boundaries), but then it was certainly part of the West Bank, included by Israel in its “maximum land, minimum Arabs”, gerrymandered municipal boundaries of “Jerusalem”.

      Ramat Shlomo is an illegal settlement built on occupied land: link to peacenow.org (click “zoom in” to see exactly where Ramat Shlomo is in relation to the Green Line)

      The term “judaization” used by Arabs – is an anti-Semitic buzz term to imply Jews are outsiders in the city. Nothing could be further from the truth.

      More nonsense. Israeli policy in Jerusalem (from the drawing of municipal boundaries to discriminatory planning to revocation of Palestinian residency to the construction of the wall) has consistently aimed to maintain a Jewish majority of roughly 70% – by favouring Jewish expansion and making life impossible for Palestinians in the city. OK, it’s not “judaization”. It’s just plain old-fashioned ethnic cleansing.

      You really should check your facts (or at the very least look at a map) before you accuse others of “lying”, “parroting propaganda” and using “anti-Semitic” terms.

      • The Hasbara Buster
        November 3, 2013, 4:26 pm

        Shmuel, NormanF’s phrase “Ramat Shlomo is in north Jerusalem west of the so-called Green Line” yields no results in a Google search. At least commend him for, for once, making up lies of his own rather than regurgitating someone else’s.

      • seafoid
        November 3, 2013, 4:50 pm

        That “Jerusalem has had a jewish majority since the 19th century” is hasbara bullshit.

      • seafoid
        November 3, 2013, 4:51 pm

        Ramat Shlomo commemorates some guy who was killed in either 1967 or some occupation disturbance, IIRC.

      • Shmuel
        November 3, 2013, 5:02 pm

        Ramat Shlomo commemorates some guy who was killed in either 1967 or some occupation disturbance, IIRC.

        It was named for Haredi Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, who died (at the age of 84) around the time they began building the settlement – initally (and almost certainly temporarily) named Rekhes Shu’afat.

      • seafoid
        November 3, 2013, 5:04 pm

        Thanks Shmuel
        Many of those risible settlements have very special names.

    • Justpassingby
      November 3, 2013, 4:24 pm

      NormanF

      So its ok with ethnic cleansing if its in Israel?

      Are you ok?

    • Shingo
      November 4, 2013, 3:21 am

      The term “judaization” used by Arabs – is an anti-Semitic buzz term to imply Jews are outsiders in the city

      That means that the term judenrin is an Islamophobic buzz term to imply Arabs are outsiders in the city.

    • Talkback
      November 4, 2013, 8:32 am

      Oh everything is part of Israel at some point during the last seven decades.

      NormanF says: “Ramat Shlomo is in north Jerusalem west of the so-called Green Line. Its not anywhere in east Jerusalem … If he lies about the geography of the city, you can be sure he lies about other stuff as well.”

      Is this some kind of confession?
      link to maps.google.de

      “The term “judaization” used by Arabs – is an anti-Semitic buzz term to imply Jews are outsiders in the city.”

      No, it’s a term which describes a racist policy to make Arabs outsiders of Jerusalem. And you are trying to divert from your support of this racist policy with the usual antisemitism spam.

    • Shmuel
      November 5, 2013, 1:59 am

      Jeff Halper hasn’t bothered to look at a map! … If he lies about the geography of the city, you can be sure he lies about other stuff as well…. Then again, just how much credibility does Halper have … And it says a lot about Mondoweiss that it swallows this without doing the slightest fact-checking!

      NormanF,
      You still have time to apologise to Halper and Mondoweiss for your false accusations, before the comments close on this post.

    • talknic
      November 5, 2013, 2:56 am

      @NormanF “Jeff Halper hasn’t bothered to look at a map! Ramat Shlomo is in north Jerusalem west of the so-called Green Line. Its not anywhere in east Jerusalem and was part of Israel before 1967.”

      When was it legally annexed to Israel? Date, cosignatories/agreement)

      If he lies about the geography of the city, you can be sure he lies about other stuff as well

      It’s an Israeli lie that ANY of Jerusalem is sovereign to Israel.

      ” it says a lot about Mondoweiss that it swallows this without doing the slightest fact-checking!”

      It says a lot about you and consecutive Israeli Governments when you and they LIE about Israeli territory that is not in fact Israeli territory.

  7. giladg
    November 3, 2013, 3:08 pm

    As long as the Palestinians are not prepared to accept and acknowledge the connection that Jews have to Jerusalem, to the very places most sought after by the Palestinians, then Israel has no options in finding a realistic solution with the Palestinians on any type of sharing agreement on parts of the city. Therefor real peace is not going to arrive any time soon. Check back in a 1,000 years. The Muslim world has been pumping millions and millions of dollars into building these high rise blocks of flats, pushing the Palestinians into taking even more radical and intransigent positions. Israel has been left with few options as Jews are not going to walk away from the sites that are central to the Jewish faith.

    • just
      November 3, 2013, 3:59 pm

      As long as you and yours deny the indigenous Palestinians any rights, justice, or peace… you will never, ever be legitimate.

      The Palestinians have been amazingly “tolerant” of the Zionists. They don’t need to accept any more of the endless BS you fling at them all.

    • Shmuel
      November 3, 2013, 4:20 pm

      The Muslim world has been pumping millions and millions of dollars into building these high rise blocks

      Really? A friend of my mine paid a contractor an awful lot of borrowed money for a flat in one of those high rises in Kufr Akab that he can’t even legally register under his name (and for which he couldn’t get a mortgage), due to discriminatory zoning and land registry laws (he’s not even allowed to own a flat in West Jerusalem or the Jerusalem settlements, and there is no decent housing available in the older Palestinian neighbourhoods).

      Could you tell me how he might get his hands on some of those “Muslim millions and millions”? I’ll be sure to pass the information on.

    • seafoid
      November 3, 2013, 5:07 pm

      The sites that are central to the Jewish faith.:

      -Russian compound torture cells
      – Canyon Mall
      – Kach office

    • RoHa
      November 3, 2013, 8:56 pm

      “As long as the Palestinians are not prepared to accept and acknowledge the connection that Jews have to Jerusalem”

      What do the Palestinians have to do to “accept and acknowledge the connection that Jews have to Jerusalem”?

      (Aside from leaving the city and country entirely, of course.)

      • Talkback
        November 4, 2013, 8:40 am

        “Jewish connection” is code for “expulsion and dispossession of Nonjews in historic Palestine”. Not only giladg’s version of “peace” is that they have to accept it. A kind of appeasement policy.

        Say giladg, what do you think about the German “connection” to the territories it controlled in the last century? Did Jews “accept and acknowledge” it?

    • eljay
      November 4, 2013, 9:04 am

      >> As long as the Palestinians are not prepared to accept and acknowledge the connection that Jews have to Jerusalem …

      Mytho-religious Jewish “connections” to Jerusalem do not constitute an entitlement to land or property and do not need to be accepted or acknowledged by the Palestinians or anyone else.

      Similarly, mytho-religious Palestinian / Muslim / Arab “connections” to Jersualem do not constitute an entitlement to land or property and do not need to be accepted or acknowledged by Jews or anyone else.

      What must be accepted and acknowleged, IMO, is the right of Palestinian and Jewish citizens of Jerusalem prior to the establishment of the supremacist “Jewish State”:
      – to continue living in their homes; or, if driven from their homes,
      – to return to live in their homes.

      • James Canning
        November 4, 2013, 12:11 pm

        One might note that the Palestinians will accept Israel’s retention of West Jerusalem, if East J is part of independent Palestine.

    • talknic
      November 5, 2013, 2:50 am

      @ giladg “As long as the Palestinians are not prepared to accept and acknowledge the connection that Jews have to Jerusalem, to the very places most sought after by the Palestinians, then Israel has no options in finding a realistic solution with the Palestinians on any type of sharing agreement on parts of the city.”

      It isn’t Israeli … UNSC res 476 please try to read it..

  8. just
    November 3, 2013, 3:22 pm

    So there IS an Occupation after all!

    “There is no legal barrier to Israel Defense Forces training inside Palestinian villages in the West Bank, according to a document prepared by the IDF’s Military Advocate General.

    Maj. Harel Weinberg, the MAG’s deputy prosecutor for operational affairs, wrote that the legality of training inside Palestinian villages is anchored in the principles of “belligerent occupation,” by which the military commander, who is the sovereign authority in the area, is obligated to maintain security and public order in the West Bank, and so must hold occasional training exercises in populated areas.

    Still, Weinberg wrote that troops taking part in such training were required to “avoid putting the population at risk, damaging their property or causing unreasonable disturbance to their daily routine.” The document was written in response to a complaint filed by activists of the Yesh Din NGO following a series of incidents involving IDF training in villages.

    In one incident last May, troops held an exercise in the middle of the village of Amatin. In another case three months ago, during Ramadan, the army held a training exercise at Tel Rumeida in Hebron while a family there was eating breakfast in their yard. According to a report by family members, about 15 soldiers broke into their yard without permission, scattered throughout both floors of the home, and practiced breaking into a home using special equipment — all while family members were inside.

    The IDF Spokesman said: “After looking into the matter, the Military Advocate General found that there was no legal obstacle to holding training in inhabited areas as part of maintaining security in the area. The orders issued for the drills that take place in populated urban areas include a statute requiring coordination with the ones doing the drill. It will also be made clear that as part of the training exercises, the soldiers must avoid putting the population at risk, damaging their property or causing unreasonable disturbance to their daily routine. Anywhere that there are deviations from these rules, the Military Advocate General will order that clarification be given and will take the appropriate measures.” ”

    link to haaretz.com

    They will justify anything.

  9. Elliot
    November 3, 2013, 4:45 pm

    Inside the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem (close to the entrance of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate) there is an empty rectangular compound, roughly the side of a football pitch. There is no direct access to it. It is surrounded on all sides by a wall and apartment buildings rising above that. Nobody ever built inside the compound because the ground us unstable. In ancient (Roman) times it was a water reservoir and the landfill is not solid. That is, until recently. A couple of years ago, I was allowed into one of those apartments and was able to see that structures were beginning to go up. Because of Israel’s policy of “ethnic cleansing” (‘Judaization’ gives me the creeps both because it mimics Aryanization and because of the abuse of the term ‘Jew’) the Palestinians are desperate for Jerusalem residency; they will even risk their family’s safety to stay.

    • just
      November 3, 2013, 5:07 pm

      ;{

      So incredibly sad and unjust.

      • seafoid
        November 4, 2013, 10:19 am

        I already feel sorry for the Jews who are going to pay for this.

  10. stevelaudig
    November 3, 2013, 6:49 pm

    Ethic cleansing, modern first use Turkey, industrial version Hitlerian Germany, boutique in Serbia, Iraq and Israel.

  11. BenYehudah
    November 3, 2013, 6:53 pm

    Why doesn’t someone start a petition on change.org or avaaz or similar? I saw a petition today to stop oil surveys in a national park in Africa and it has about a million signatures. Surely a major injustice like this could get a lot of support if worded intelligently and accurately? (Don’t give people a reason not to sign by saying stuff they won’t agree with or that is open to challenge, so many petitions fail that way).

    Would it change anything? Who knows? At least the exposure to world opinion might constrain some of the more crass actions. Worth a try?

  12. dbroncos
    November 3, 2013, 10:57 pm

    Obama will do nothing about this fresh outrage against human decency. He’s too busy jotting down his memoirs and counting the days till he can retire to the lucerative lecture circuit.

    • James Canning
      November 4, 2013, 2:05 pm

      Obama clearly is trying, among other things, to avoid another foolish American war in the Middle East. Whether Israel lobby will allow him to avoid another war is a good question.

  13. seafoid
    November 4, 2013, 3:27 am

    Once we wash all the blood and guts from the streets we will set up a prayer highway to god in our holy jewish city.

    I guess the holiest of holies must have been some kind of knife.

    • mcohen
      November 4, 2013, 7:08 am

      Seafoid

      Interesting comment

      Holiest of holies being a knife

      Lately i have been thinking about the destruction of the second temple and the animal sacrifices
      Would animal sacrifice begin again if a third temple was built
      No probably not as the jewish relegion has evolved,and so have the jews along with humanity
      A just solution to the i/p conflict must come from the 3 companions,judaism,christianity and islam
      Relegion gave birth to the state of israel,
      politics and war has not worked as history has shown
      why build a mosque on the ruins of a temple
      to put an end to animal sacrifice and force change,a companion pushed to evolve
      the interaction between the 3 companions is of utmost importance
      a starting point ,a catalyst,is needed to unify to allow the 3 companions to evolve once again

      3 companions,7 falling stars,the earth shall open,an ancient spring will flow again

  14. mondonut
    November 4, 2013, 2:02 pm

    Judaization of Jerusalem. Too funny, why not protest making water wet?

  15. mondonut
    November 4, 2013, 9:16 pm

    just says: So there IS an Occupation after all!
    ————
    Of course there is. That is not even denied.

    • Shingo
      November 5, 2013, 2:34 am

      Of course there is. That is not even denied.

      It is by Ludwig and Norman F so you might want to explain it to them.

      • seafoid
        November 5, 2013, 7:01 am

        Is Ludwig also a settler?

  16. unverified__5kga62lh
    November 5, 2013, 4:22 am

    How to run toward the abyss by dragging to the own compatriots: irresponsible and crazy.

  17. Annie Robbins
    November 6, 2013, 1:26 am

    this makes me sick.

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