Trending Topics:

A guide to principled anti-Zionism

Activism
on 26 Comments

An optimal anti-Zionism supersedes Palestine’s geography.  It likewise transcends ethnocentric interests. Anti-Zionism is a politics and a discourse, sometimes a vocation, but at its best it is also a sensibility, one attuned to disorder and upheaval.  It is a commitment to unimaginable possibilities—that is, to realizing what arbiters of common sense like to call “impossible.”

What, then, does a principled anti-Zionism look like?  And what might it accomplish? Here are some suggestions:

  • It is internationalist in the classic Marxist sense of the term; as such, it informs and absorbs liberation movements around the world.  
  • It is anti-capitalist because Palestine will be free only when nobody within its borders is exploited.  (You can agitate for something less perfect, yes, but the language should reflect the limitations of that approach.)  
  • It recognizes that mass extinction is earth’s immediate forecast.  Israel has destroyed Palestine’s environment with an array of bulldozers, munitions, and chemical weapons, along with overdevelopment to accommodate settlers.  It is, in short, an ecological catastrophe requiring what Anthony Galluzzo terms a “decelerationist socialism” to avert or at least mitigate our “literal gothic nightmare.”  
  • It moves beyond opposition to military occupation.  Decolonization is key. The difference may appear semantic, but it’s actually significant.  In addition to disrupting the colonizer’s physical and political control, decolonization aims to abolish the settler’s psychic influence.  
  • It is feminist in both theory and practice.  There’s no pre-patriarchal history in Palestine to satisfy our nostalgia, but this shouldn’t prevent us from pursuing a post-patriarchal future.  It’s critical to decouple visions of this pursuit from Western orthodoxies around sex and gender.
  • It opposes all forms of racism, including anti-Semitism.  This principle on its own decisively rebukes Zionism.
  • It is anti-imperialist.  While anti-Zionism and anti-imperialism are coterminous, some elements of the pro-Palestine crowd yearn for a world the USA can dominate without Israeli interference.  Other elements of the crowd have a bad habit of supporting US interventions that either benefit or directly involve Israel (as in Syria). Imperialism executes colonial fantasies of redemption; it has no place in any serious political community.  
  • It doesn’t reduce Palestine to a branding device that can be invoked or ignored depending on the mood of editors and prize committees, or an instrument of celebrity to be calibrated according to market fluctuations in the pundit economy.  
  • It doesn’t give progressive politicians a pass when they suck up to the Israel lobby.  

These suggestions, I realize, risk transforming Palestine into a utopian tableau, perhaps a search for some kind of “Palestinian Wakanda,” as a prominent activist put it at a recent event I attended.  There’s much to be said about the benefits that would come from basic freedoms (travel, medical care, civil rights, housing, and so forth). I see no appreciable conflict between efforts at short-term relief and long-term emancipation.  Upholding principles that maintain the dignity of struggle foregrounds an effective material politics. We oughtn’t surrender notions of possibility to people who adore a stunted imagination.

Moreover, the suggestions don’t simply appeal to Palestine solidarity activists; they also demand that progressive formations take up anti-Zionism.  We’re well past the point where it’s acceptable to dispose of Palestine as a matter of choice or necessity. There’s significant opposition to Israeli brutality on the US left, but hardly any consequence in electoral culture for cosigning or ignoring that brutality.  

Done without care, opposition to Israeli brutality can reify other forms of oppression, or it can conceptualize Israel as an aberration from honorable American values.  Israel doesn’t corrupt the United States—nor does the United States corrupt Israel. Both states originated through corruption—as paragons of foreign settlement, land theft, environmental degradation, racial inequality, and labor exploitation—a condition they mutually reproduce within and beyond their borders.  Israel doesn’t distract the United States from its otherwise noble mission in the world; it helps the United States manage a world order beneficial to its ruling class.

Disrupting those benefits is easier than it might seem.  We shouldn’t voluntarily concede to the oppressor, first of all.  The needs of power aren’t our guidepost for liberation; our notions of justice aren’t derivative of colonial logic.  At its best, a principled anti-Zionism understands that freedom isn’t merely an optimal byproduct of struggle, but its only acceptable outcome.  

Steven Salaita
About Steven Salaita

Steven Salaita's most recent book is Inter/Nationalism: Decolonizing Native America and Palestine.

Other posts by .


Posted In:

26 Responses

  1. CitizenC
    CitizenC
    October 1, 2018, 1:10 pm

    I greatly admire and respect Stephen Salaita’s sacrifices and steadfastness for Palestine, but I think there is too much here, at least to start. The first step must be to recover the canonical terms of Enlightenment liberalism and Jewish emancipation which followed. These have been abandoned for the golden calf of “the Jewish people,” on the left no less than the right.

    The Enlightenment dissolved the pre-modern Judaic community, ruled by the rabbis and the rich, and admitted Jews to liberal society, as a religious minority, or secular citizens. Before 1914 and the political consequences of WW1, increasing acceptance of Jews on these terms was the norm. Fundamental was the rejection of “Jewish peoplehood”, in the words of the 1885 Pittsburgh Platform of American Reform:

    “We consider ourselves no longer a nation, but a religious community, and therefore expect neither a return to Palestine, nor a sacrificial worship under the sons of Aaron, nor the restoration of any of the laws concerning the Jewish state.”

    Reform was socially the vehicle of the German Jewish bourgeoisie, and attained its apotheosis in the US. In the 1940s this outlook, led by Rabbi Elmer Berger, Lessing Rosenwald and others, mounted a vigorous rear-guard action against the Zionist campaign for statehood. After 1948 Berger became an outspoken advocate of Palestinian rights, lionized in the Arab world. After the June, 1967 war, Berger, with a core of classical Reform supporters, renewed the struggle. He co-authored UN GA Resolution 3379 that held Zionism was a form of racism, and wrote on it himself. The Institute for Palestine Studies published his books.

    Berger, like Israel Shahak, viewed Zionism as a reaction against liberalism and assimilation, an attempt to preserve the closed, medieval Jewish world and its obscurantism view, notably its anti-gentilism. Shahak was not a Marxist, much less a Reform Jew, but considered himself a secular humanist after Spinoza, the greatest of the 17th c rationalist philosophers. He wrote acutely on Zionism as a secularization of the obscurantism of medieval Judaism. Neither Berger nor Shahak were social radicals, though they were liberals, and Shahak’s circle of supporters included Matzpen, which was Marxist.

    Spinoza and classical Reform predated Marxist internationalism, which is also an important strain of anti-Zionist thought. The opposition of Zionism and internationalism emerged in the classical debates over the “national question” in the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party in 1903. Rosa Luxemburg was the most rigorous internationalist, and the greatest figure of socialism’s Second International period, who famously wrote, in a 1917 letter from the jail where her opposition to WW1 had landed her:

    What do you want with this theme of the “special suffering of the Jews”? I am just as much concerned with the poor victims on the rubber plantations of Putumayo, the Blacks in Africa with whose corpses the Europeans play catch. You know the words that were written about the great work of the General Staff, about General Trotha’s campaign in the Kalahari desert: “And the death rattles of the dying, the demented cries of those driven mad by thirst faded away in the sublime stillness of eternity.” Oh that “sublime stillness of eternity,” in which so many cries of anguish have faded away unheard, they resound within me so strongly that I have no special place in my heart for the ghetto. I feel at home in the entire world, wherever there are clouds and birds and human tears.

    Internationalism survived WW2 and its epochal tranformations in figures like the Polish Communist Isaac Deutscher, and the French Communist Maxime Rodinson. Deutscher left Poland for England in spring 1939, survived the war, visited Israel in the early 1950s, and wrote with perfect clarity about its militarism, colonialism and nationalism. He died in August, 1967, having lived to see Zionism enter its maturity, and viewed the war as arising from Israel’s conduct.

    Rodinson, a scholar of Middle East languages, survived the war in Syria. Afterward he was attached to the French embassy in Beirut; when word arrived that his parents had perished in Auschwitz, he was offered an embassy car to join “his people” in Palestine. He refused as it would violate his internationalism. In 1964 he took the negative in a debate organized by the Union of Jewish Students in France, on the proposition, “Israel is a socialist state”. On the eve of the June, 1967 war, he published “Israel, a Colonial-Settler State”, which appeared in a special issue of Sartre’s Les Tempes Modernes. His “Israel and the Arabs” appeared in 2 editions, and included a sharp criticism of Israel’s role in the origins of the June 1967 war. He passed away in 2004.

    Before anti-Zionism can be anything else, it must recover its foundations in the Enlightenment and Jewish emancipation, which have been abandoned by the left, from Chomsky on down. Chomsky is a Zionist, believes in Zionist shibboleths of “the Jewish people” and the “secular Jew”, views the kibbutz, an instrument of racialist Ashkenazi Jewish settlement, as anarchism.

    These illiberal, anti-modern fallacies underlie his minimal critique of “the occupation”, his rejection of the “Israel Lobby” argument about the US-Israel relationship, his opposition to BDS beyond “the occupation”, his dogged defense of the “two-state solution” etc. The whole Jewish left is comprised of such Zionist foundations and equivocal, compromised politics, notably Jewish Voice for Peace. This epic failure can be called “the end of modern Jewish history”, my term and others’, with varying interpretations. See

    https://questionofpalestine.net/2013/01/15/the-end-of-modern-jewish-history/

  2. Nathan
    Nathan
    October 1, 2018, 4:10 pm

    “We consider ourselves no longer a nation, but a religious community, and therefore expect neither a return to Palestine… nor the restoration of any of the laws concerning the Jewish state”

    CitizenC – This above quote from the 1885 Pittsburgh Platform of the American Reform Movement is by no means a rejection of Jewish peoplehood. Quite the contrary – it is an affirmation of Jewish peoplehood and the collective aspirations of the Jews. When someone declares that “we consider ourselves no longer a nation, but a religious community”, that someone is admitting that until now (1885) the Jews considered themselves to be a nation, not merely a religious community. Moreover, there is even an affirmation that the Jews until now (1885) were concerned with the restoration of the Jewish state – a decade before the appearance of Herzl’s book, “Der Judenstaat”. The rabbis in Pittsburgh decided that they no longer consider themselves a nation, but in so doing they are admitting that other Jews do consider themselves a nation. And, since the 1999 Pittsburgh Platform, even the Reform Movement defines the Jews as a people and encourages immigration to Israel.

    • Stephen Shenfield
      Stephen Shenfield
      October 1, 2018, 4:43 pm

      They were reformers. They advocated a reform of Jewish identity. Of course prior to the reform there was a different identity — traditionally Jews did consider themselves a people or nation, though in a special sense (not in accordance with the concepts of modern nationalism). The new identity as ‘merely a religious community’ became possible as a result of Jewish emancipation, i.e., the granting of civil rights to Jews as citizens. And reformers acknowledge that others are opposed to reform and want to stick to the traditional identity. I don’t see the problem in such ‘admissions’.

      Reform Jews caved in to Zionism and betrayed their own principles by accepting ‘Jewish peoplehood’ in its new Zionist form. But that doesn’t mean they were never sincere in rejecting peoplehood.

      • Mooser
        Mooser
        October 1, 2018, 5:39 pm

        “Reform Jews caved in to Zionism and betrayed their own principles by accepting ‘Jewish peoplehood’ in its new Zionist form.”

        It was just their way of saying “Thank You, America!”

      • Joshua Laskin
        Joshua Laskin
        October 2, 2018, 9:04 am

        It wasn’t the same Reform Jews, as those who’d rejected Jewish nationalism, who accepted Zionism. It was a generation later; and, it included newly-immigrated European Reform Jews, who weren’t integrated Americans. Although there were some early-20th-century Reform Jews who did put up a good fight against Zionism, there were enough who yielded to the excitement of the new cause, to enable tipping the movement away from its founding principles. And it was, to some degree, a reaction to America slamming the door to further Jewish immigration, because of America’s difficulty in digesting all those tribal luftmenschen, prone to either radical socialism or shyster capitalism. Zion was attractive, as someplace else to direct the tide of European Jews; and, as an anti-assimilationist, Gentile-free, health-ghetto utopian experiment. It seems possible, so far, for Reform Jews to live in their progressive pockets, within the fundamentalist-military-nationalist Israeli mainstream; while living their zio-utopian dream. But Reform-Zionism has no future among Diaspora youth, who can see Zion for what it really was destined to become.

      • Mooser
        Mooser
        October 2, 2018, 11:07 am

        “America slamming the door to further Jewish immigration, because of America’s difficulty in digesting all those tribal luftmenschen, prone to either radical socialism or shyster capitalism.”

        And America specifically prohibited Jews from coming to America, by religion?

      • Nathan
        Nathan
        October 3, 2018, 11:36 am

        Steven Shenfield – The Reform Movement didn’t “cave into Zionism” nor did Reform Jews “betrayed their own principles by accepting Jewish peoplehood”. The movement came into existence in the 19th century, and meanwhile in the 20th century some very dramatic events touched the lives of all Jews. Already in 1937, the Reform Movement in its Columbus Convention expressed its support and sympathy for the settlement of Jews in Palestine. Obviously, this change in ideology is a reaction to the evil Nazi regime. You might call this “caving in” because of your anti-Israel perspective – but you have to see the world in the eyes of the Reform Jews. The phenomenon of Nazism was unthinkable in 1885, but it was a fact of life in the 1930’s. How could the movement pretend that assimilation and integration are still relevant? The change of course was a natural reaction to the changing realities of the Jewish experience.

        Another dramatic event that is impossible to brush aside is the revival of the Hebrew language and the rise of an independent Jewish state. It’s rather difficult to maintain a position that the Jews are no longer a people when, in front of your eyes, the Jews are obviously a people. You call it “betraying principles”, but again you are viewing things only through your anti-Israel perspective. From the perspective of Reform Movement educators, it’s rather obvious that Jews speaking the ancient language of Israel and living in the ancient land of Israel are not just a “religious community”. They’re a people, and obviously the Reform Movement understands that they are “our people”.

        You should try and see things in the eyes of others. The story of modern Israel is a gigantic drama, and it is certainly the biggest success story of Jewish history. The Reform Movement has decided that it must be part of it.

      • Mooser
        Mooser
        October 3, 2018, 1:31 pm

        “The Reform Movement has decided that it must be part of it.”

        ROTFLMSJAO!! And if there’s one thing I know as a Jew, it’s that I can depend on Jewish religious and social leadership to make all the right decisions for us. Especially in regard to our obligations as American citizens.

      • eljay
        eljay
        October 3, 2018, 1:46 pm

        || Nathan: … It’s rather difficult to maintain a position that the Jews are no longer a people when, in front of your eyes, the Jews are obviously a people. … it’s rather obvious that Jews speaking the ancient language of Israel and living in the ancient land of Israel are not just a “religious community”. … ||

        It is rather obvious that Jewish is a religion-based identity that is acquired by:
        – undergoing a religious conversion to Judaism; or
        – being descended from someone who underwent a religious conversion to Judaism.

        It is rather obvious that non-Jewish Israelis who speak “the ancient language of Israel” and live “in the ancient land of Israel” are not considered to be Jews.

        It’s rather difficult for Zionists to maintain a position that Israel is anything other than a religion-supremacist “Jewish State” when, in front of your eyes, they insist that Israel is a state primarily of and for people within Israel and throughout the world who choose to hold the religion-based identity of Jewish.

      • RoHa
        RoHa
        October 3, 2018, 10:02 pm

        “It’s rather difficult to maintain a position that the Jews are no longer a people when, in front of your eyes, the Jews are obviously a people.”

        On the standard definitions of “a people”, Jews in general do not qualify. It is not a matter of great importance, though, since nothing of import follows either way.

        “it’s rather obvious that Jews speaking the ancient language of Israel and living in the ancient land of Israel are not just a “religious community”. They’re a people,”

        Israeli Jews do seem to qualify.

        “Another dramatic event that is impossible to brush aside is the revival of the Hebrew language”

        The only point of that seems to be a way of cutting off Israeli Jews from the rest of the world and marking them as different. Otherwise it is of no greater import than the efforts of those eccentrics who try to revive Cornish.

        “The story of modern Israel is a gigantic drama, and it is certainly the biggest success story of Jewish history.”

        The Mafia had big success stories as well.

        “You should try and see things in the eyes of others.”

        Good advice. Might I recommend that you follow it?

    • Mooser
      Mooser
      October 3, 2018, 3:59 pm

      “Quite the contrary – it is an affirmation of Jewish peoplehood and the collective aspirations of the Jews.”

      Which means that it’s perfectly all right to support settlements, and break the FARA laws. In fact, it’s a mitzvah.

    • Maximus Decimus Meridius
      Maximus Decimus Meridius
      October 4, 2018, 7:26 am

      “Another dramatic event that is impossible to brush aside is the revival of the Hebrew language and the rise of an independent Jewish state. It’s rather difficult to maintain a position that the Jews are no longer a people when, in front of your eyes, the Jews are obviously a people.”

      Using the language as a marker of peoplehood makes zero sense here.

      About 1 in 5 of the population is Israel is not Jewish, but they speak Hebrew too.

      About half of the world’s Jewish population lives outside of the state of Israel, and few of them speak Hebrew

      100 years ago, almost nobody – Jewish or otherwise – spoke Hebrew at all. It was a practically dead language which had to be resurrected to create an “Israel identity” to replace German, Polish, Russian, Persain etc, in the same way that so many Israeli Jews concocted fake names to replace their European or Middle Eastern ones. Therefore, if you’re claiming that a common language = peoplehood, you’re on shaky ground here.

      As another poster said, you could make a case that Israeli Jews are a ‘people’. But Jews in general? No.

    • Maghlawatan
      Maghlawatan
      October 4, 2018, 4:33 pm

      Hebrew is sort of a dead language. Dissent is banned. Jews are stripped of their curiosity. Black means white.

  3. Mooser
    Mooser
    October 1, 2018, 5:45 pm

    ” traditionally Jews did consider themselves a people or nation”

    And oddly enough, when other people stop considering Jews a people or nation (or un-mixable with, for whatever reason) why, so do we! Funny how that works.

  4. pabelmont
    pabelmont
    October 1, 2018, 9:06 pm

    Salaita has a good program. One could do much worse. He folds together all the “goods” of our present age — anti-capitalism (by which I mean at the least anti-oligarchism), anti-male-privilege (aka feminism), anti-colonialism, anti-nationalism (which fits nicely with anti-racism), pro-environmentalism (anti-human-dominance of everything),etc.

    What’s not to like? And — oh yes — pro-Palestinianism as a form of anti-settler-colonialism and free association for Jews (and others) allowing Jews to feel part of or not part of any so-called Jewish people, religious grouping, etc.

    • Maghlawatan
      Maghlawatan
      October 3, 2018, 3:39 pm

      It would also have to be pro the people in order to bring out the best from them. Zionism is miserable on this score.
      I also think pro Palestinian should be world class because the balestinian beoble deserve it given all the Zionist crap they have had to put up with.

  5. DaBakr
    DaBakr
    October 2, 2018, 9:11 am

    That old Israeli steel industry powerhouse…..

    And is S.S. trying to make Israel hating palatable? to ‘liberal’ zionists supposedly? Such a dreamer

    • Misterioso
      Misterioso
      October 2, 2018, 11:04 am

      @DaBakr

      You really must get out more.
      The entity known as “Israel” is on an ever faster downward slide, especially and most importantly, among young Jews who are increasingly viewing it with disgust.

      Times of Israel, June 21/17:
      http://www.timesofisrael.com/devastating-survey-shows-huge-loss-of-israel-support-among-jewish-college-students/
      https://www.haaretz.com/israel -news/.premium-jewish-agency- chief-warns-young-u-s-jews- more-turned-off-to-israel-1. 5751616

      Haaretz – Jan 22, 2018, by Judy Maltz
      “Young American Jews Increasingly Turning Away From Israel, Jewish Agency Leader Warns”
      “The Jewish Agency’s CEO and director-general called the trend ‘extremely worrisome,’ and said that a new strategy must be undertaken to engage young American Jews with Israel.”

      https://www.haaretz.com/opinion/.premium-progressives-welcome-aipac-is-all-just-gaslighting-1.5871623?utm_campaign=newsletter-daily&utm_medium=email&utm_source=smartfocus&utm_content=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.haaretz.com%2Fopinion%2F.premium-progressives-welcome-aipac-is-all-just-gaslighting-1.5871623
      “Why Young Jews and Democrats Are Waving Goodbye to AIPAC”
      By Emily Mayer, March 6, 2018 – Haaretz
      “My generation has only known Israel as an occupier. We won’t back anyone who supports that injustice – including the powerful lobby that is AIPAC”

      The Forward, June 21/17: “Support for Israel on Campus Drops by ‘Devastating’ 27%: Study”
      “The Brand Israel Group [BIG], a coalition of volunteer advertising and marketing specialists, has released a survey that shows a significant decrease in Israel’s approval rating among Americans.

      “’The future of America no longer believe that Israel shares their values. This is huge! Devastating,’ Fern Oppenheim, a co-founder of BIG, told The Times of Israel. While approval of Israel among American college students dropped 27% between the group’s 2010 and 2016 surveys, Israel’s approval rating among all Americans dropped 14 points, from 76% to 62%.”

      Furthermore, regarding the USA: http://forward.com/news/ national/376097/study-israel- losing-support-among- democrats-minorities- millennials/ The Forward July 2, 2017
      ”Study: Israel Losing Support Among Democrats, Minorities, Millennials ‘It appears that the more Americans learn about Israel, the less they like it.’”

      Support for Israel among American Jewish college students and young American Jews in general is in decline:

      Times of Israel, June 21/17:
      http://www.timesofisrael.com/devastating-survey-shows-huge-loss-of-israel-support-among-jewish-college-students/

      https://www.haaretz.com/israel -news/.premium-jewish-agency- chief-warns-young-u-s-jews- more-turned-off-to-israel-1. 5751616
      Haaretz – Jan 22, 2018, by Judy Maltz
      “Young American Jews Increasingly Turning Away From Israel, Jewish Agency Leader Warns”
      “The Jewish Agency’s CEO and director-general called the trend ‘extremely worrisome,’ and said that a new strategy must be undertaken to engage young American Jews with Israel.”

      http://therealnews.com/t2/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=31&Itemid=74&jumival=20982'%20style='color:#000;
      The Real News, Jan. 25/18
      “US Bipartisan Support for Israel over Palestinians Is Breaking Down, New Study Shows”
      “The bipartisan consensus of support for Israel over the Palestinians is breaking down in the United States.

      • MHughes976
        MHughes976
        October 2, 2018, 12:44 pm

        I’m quite sceptical of the ‘declining support’ idea: there are some indications the other way, notably the Gallup poll of March 13 this year, which said that American support for Israel, at 64%,matches the all-time high.

      • DaBakr
        DaBakr
        October 2, 2018, 1:40 pm

        @m

        pragmatism despite the success or defeat of a cause is usually the way forward. Nobody said Israel will endure for eternity but for now it would seem the next century is a good probability. That Arab leaders recognize this but not rabid anti Zionist westerners is curious

      • eljay
        eljay
        October 2, 2018, 3:01 pm

        || @aak: … Nobody said Israel will endure for eternity … ||

        …but some have optimistically said it will endure for a Thousand Years!

    • Mooser
      Mooser
      October 2, 2018, 11:13 am

      “Such a dreamer” “Dabakr”

      Perhaps he is. But you and I know that only one kind of anti-Zionism will be successful: whatever kind works.

      • DaBakr
        DaBakr
        October 2, 2018, 1:42 pm

        @mssr
        dreaming and the collision of timing in history might be a thing. Or…. It might not.

  6. MHughes976
    MHughes976
    October 4, 2018, 11:52 am

    I call myself an anti-Zionist because I think that there are certain human rights, notably the right to be an enfranchised citizen of a sovereign state, which are being disregarded in Zionist treatment of Palestinians. Though I think that rights can sometimes be set aside when doing so is for the general good of all concerned and enjoys a fair measure of consent among all concerned I cannot see that any such reasons apply here. I don’t think that these rights are contingent on being a member of any specific group, including one commonly or contentiously called a people.: that is what makes the term ‘human rights’ appropriate. I don’t think that human rights can be set aside in the interests of any group or people as opposed to those of another: that makes the ideas both of human rights and of a relevant general good inoperative.
    However, I am not a Marxist or a socialist. I’d regret it if Professor Salaita would regard me as in danger of being or becoming unprincipled.

  7. Jackdaw
    Jackdaw
    October 6, 2018, 11:11 am

    Global warming is turning the Middle East into a tinderbox.

    A well-armed, united nation-State like Israel has the best chance to survive in the ravages of climate change.

    You say Israel is losing support, I say things go sideways.

    • Mooser
      Mooser
      October 6, 2018, 1:21 pm

      “A well-armed, united nation-State like Israel has the best chance to survive in the ravages of climate change.”

      Yeah, yeah, in the morning you’ll go gunning for the man who stole your water…

Leave a Reply