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On Gaza: The end will continue

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This is part of Marc H. Ellis’s “Exile and the Prophetic” feature for Mondoweiss. To read the entire series visit the archive page.

Recent events in Gaza hit hard, coinciding as they did with the 70th anniversary of Israel and the Palestinian Nakba. Will Gaza soon fade from the global news? Israel can no longer be thought without the Nakba, can it?

During the 1st intifada I wrote that the Israeli occupation was over. Some thought this an optimistic assessment, as if life for Palestinians and Israelis would now move beyond occupation. That wasn’t what I was thinking, just the opposite. I thought the Rubicon had been crossed and either Israel would negotiate a two-state solution or place its foot on the accelerator and take as much of Palestine as it could.

Neither happened exactly as I thought. Yet I was hardly wrong either and the question of questions remains thirty years after my initial understanding: When an occupation becomes permanent is it still an occupation?

Words are important. Though clearly some of the expressed horror at Israel’s actions in Gaza bespeak a disturbing subtext about Jews in this and that position of power, the overwhelming expressions of horror are correctly directed at the incredibly outrageous use of unbridled state power against a defenseless and encircled population in Gaza.

The permanence of Israel’s control is undoubted in any political analysis. Everyone knows, including Palestinian leadership, that Israel, with other powers in the region, especially Egypt and Jordan, and still others outside Europe, including the United States and the major powers in Europe, are uninterested in anything but a subjugated and controlled Palestinian population. The progressive NGOs and church denominations in the West at least, even in their recent statements of outrage, more or less argue the same political line. No country or entity is willing to sacrifice enough to reverse the occupation of Palestinians in Gaza, the West Bank or Jerusalem. So the scandal of the abuse of state power, laid correctly at the feet of Israel, must be spread globally.

Is global responsibility going to do the trick and somehow strike a real, rather than symbolic, blow for Palestinian freedom? If I were a Palestinian, I wouldn’t hold my breath. Or I would begin to breathe again since Palestinians having been holding their breath for seventy years and counting. What do we say to those lesser entities that cannot turn the tide, who have too little power, but can at least pay up for their concern in a witness that is intentional, unmistakable, without reserve and, in a way that in the eyes of their opponents, is bound to seem outrageous?

Here’s what I think: In Gaza, the end will continue. As it has for decades. But not only for Palestinians. For Jews within Israel and Jews outside Israel, the historical judgment is certain. Let’s be honest. And realize that the Jewish approach to Israel and the Palestinians, improving modestly over the years but severely compromised, will continue to be interrogated by the suffering of Palestinian populations in Gaza and elsewhere in Palestine.

Palestinians are trapped. Jews are too.

On the Jewish side of the permanent occupation, statements from rabbinic organizations have been woeful, weak, carefully (deceitfully?) balanced, on the one hand and on the other. Statements on Gaza by Rabbis for Human Rights in Israel and its sister organization in the United States, T’ruah are prime progressive examples of this. The statement from the Reconstructionist Rabbinical Association is similar and perhaps worse. Speaking of these statements in the most charitable way, I find a timidity which mystifies and compromises their outrage.

In these statements, the rabbis present themselves as conflicted. On the one hand, they bemoan the loss of Palestinian life. On the other hand, they celebrate the 70th anniversary of Israel as a beacon of hope. Moving the US Embassy to Jerusalem also occasions a conflicted conscience. In their view, Jewish history has awaited a renewed presence in Jerusalem for thousands of years. The rabbis are still on board flying the Israeli flag. Their aside? On the embassy move, perhaps the timing was wrong.

On what looks more and more like a colonial settler regime, the rabbis are silent. On the structural racism that pervades Israel and its outlook, again silence. On conquering another people and the permanence of occupation, perish the thought. These so well-educated rabbis seems lost in their rabbinic texts. They are experts in knowing who Jews were. They seem unaware of who we have become.

The Rabbis want it both ways and it seems they have it – if they don’t probe the historic and ongoing connection between Gaza and the state of Israel. Reading their statements, and dealing with rabbis for many years, I wonder if they understand these connections. Most rabbis cut their teeth on advanced Hebrew and rabbinic studies in programs in Jerusalem, a city they know part of, the Jewish side, and a city they extol in wondrous language. I ask: Has the thought ever entered their heightened religious imagination that their Hebrew language proficiency and religious attachment to the land was achieved in a highly militarized apartheid Jewish state?

Rabbis should close their eyes and imagine their stay in Jerusalem in a new way. Imagine their rabbinic training was guarded by Star of David helicopter gunships. Imagine that the snipers who murdered unarmed Palestinians within Gaza are guarding the rabbis-in-training as I write.

For the rabbis, some of this strange duality no doubt harkens back to their rabbinic training as leaders within the Jewish community. How far can rabbis go without divorcing themselves from the people they are trained to serve? There is more though. Ignorance of history and the real situation in Israel-Palestine to start but, it seems, the rabbis in question lack an overall ability to understand that as Jews we have reached an end; the end of ethical Jewish history as we have known and inherited it. Continuing to appeal to the Jewish ethical tradition as they do in their statements is akin to hiding their rabbinic heads in the sand. In what tradition do these rabbis now stand, in real time? It may simply be self-interest. Are they afraid that the end of ethical Jewish history spells their rabbinic end too?

There are some Jews in the more radical and informed activist community who think that spending time on “Jewish” in relation to Israel-Palestine is a sign of privilege and, besides, it is wasted time better spent on turning the historical tide. People are tired, many Jews included, of Jews showing off their (quite safe) anguish as Palestinians are buried and the hospitals in Gaza overflow with the injured for life. Understood. But since I am a Jew and thus responsible with other Jews in relation to Jewish history, narrating my outrage in another form would be evading my responsibility, a sign of privilege writ large.

“Jewish” is important in history and will continue to be in the future. Among other things, and in a special and distinctive way, “Jewish” is the root of the global prophetic. Jews drawing near to, embracing and embodying the prophetic isn’t just privileged grandstanding. The prophetic is the Jewish indigenous. It is the only reason to be Jewish. It also remains an essential part of the global prophetic. An (un)rooted global prophetic can show itself off in dazzling colors. Where will it lead us?

Israel’s occupation of Palestine is permanent in any way permanence can be understood today. This means as far as our historical eye can see, for our purposes, say the next twenty-five to fifty years at least. There will be ongoing negotiations within that permanence, with some changes for the better and others for the worse. With that permanence we need to pay attention to another permanence, resistance, which I fold into the prophetic, when the prophetic is thought in a multilayered way and includes both the political and the spiritual.

If you think the movement back and ahead to the prophetic is apolitical, an understandable thought, look at the argument that international law will turn the occupation upside down. Think in practical terms. The major powers of the world and, in turn, those not so major powers who court the major powers or are dependent upon them, have a definite interest in containing the violence against Palestinians. So far so good. They even have an interest in containing the extension of Israel’s occupation of Palestine. Good as well. What they lack is an interest in ending the occupation of Palestinian land and life as things are now and, even more, a reversal of the occupation to the 1967 borders.

Although there is increasing discussion about the borders of 1948 and indeed the very concept of a self-defined Jewish state, international law and the international community goes nowhere near this issue. Even the original supporters of Palestinians in the Arab world, at least some major players there, have incorporated Israel into their security survival strategy. Among them, Egypt and Jordan operate as national restraints on Palestinian ambitions and are crucial in keeping Palestinians contained. Saudi Arabia’s links to Israel are strong and becoming stronger. Outside of the Middle East, Europe has historic obligations to Jews and has played a significant role in arming Israel. In turn, Europe continues to buy Israeli arms battle tested on Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza. In the near future this will include some of Israel’s war innovations during the last weeks in Gaza. The United States interests and policies are too obvious to discuss here but, just with a side a glance at Syria, think: What is Russia’s interest in a real and viable Palestinian state?

In relation to Gaza, there is outrage, appropriately so. I add a sense of doom. No matter what I think personally, is doom a responsible public outcry? Is doom another way of expressing outrage or a way of giving up? These questions are real. What we are learning is that for the time being, my definition of permanent, the Israel=Palestine will remain pretty much as it is.

When we think of social, political and economic change in different parts of the world, in most places the change that occurs will be on the margins. Make no mistake, change on the margins, for good and ill, involves matters of life and death. That change is worth mobilizing for. But to think, for example, that the overall situation in the Philippines or Brazil or the United States, will change in a steady and quick succession is an illusion. In Gaza and among Palestinians in general, any intervention on the side of good is likely to bring marginal change – within a permanent occupation. Often payback for good behavior will follow, disciplining the “unruly” forces, a Faustian bargain that the Palestinian Authority and, in reality rather than rhetorically, Hamas, has entered into.

As throughout history, the innocent and the ordinary suffer through history as others, who may have previously suffered, in the Jewish case, in history’s view quite recently, inflict more or less the same abuse they suffered. Until, at some time in the future, the Wheel of Power and Powerlessness moves again. The Jewish prophetic and all those who join in the prophetic have to act to stem that suffering and also, at a step or more removed, maintain an ability to think independently.

During the Great March of Return multi-week protests, anyone who has been around the issue of Israel-Palestine has seen the same negotiators and commentators doing and saying the same things as in years past. This includes those we agree or disagree with, those who have lost their cutting edge if they ever had one, and those we know are corrupt. True, the discourse has evolved. More and more can be said. Yet, within that positive narrative change, politically, the losses have been unrelenting. Devastating. I doubt there is a conflict in the world where consciousness has evolved so much and political losses have been so massive, as it has with Israel-Palestine

So let us drop the pretense! Be honest! The end Gaza is experiencing will continue. The ethical end Jewish history Jews are experiencing will continue. What to do at the end? Palestinians will decide for themselves. So will prophetic Jews.

Marc H. Ellis

Marc H. Ellis is Professor of History and Jewish Studies and Director of the Center for the Study of the Global Prophetic. His latest book is Finding Our Voice: Embodying the Prophetic and Other Misadventures.

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31 Responses

  1. RoHa on May 19, 2018, 1:22 am

    ‘“Jewish” is the root of the global prophetic. ‘

    What is the global prophetic?

    • Somervillein on May 19, 2018, 2:47 pm

      Thank you, Prof. Ellis, for this so, so sad, yet very realistic assessment of the “continuing end.” We have so much to learn in this life, this world, and we fall far, far short. L’Chaim. Praise to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. Praise God from whom all blessings flow. But the prophets have called us to go FAR beyond praise. Let us sacrifice FOR each other–not sacrifice each other. Amen.

    • echinococcus on May 19, 2018, 5:30 pm

      Mr Ellis,

      How about answering questions, like the one above, about central terms you use so often, which however remain totally opaque to many of your would-be readers? After so many years, many readers still have no clear idea about what you are trying to say. Up to you, of course.

    • RoHa on May 19, 2018, 9:16 pm

      No answer to my question? I’ve asked several times, but only W Jones attempted to explain it. It would be nice if Ellis could actually define the strange term. It looks like an adjective, but he uses it as a noun.

      • Citizen on May 21, 2018, 5:44 pm

        Does this help?

        “Jeremiah witnessed the fall of the Assyrian Empire and the death of King Josiah. Though the people deeply mourned the death of their beloved King Josiah, the chief mourner was the prophet Jeremiah, for he knew very well that with the untimely passing of this last pious king, the end of Judea as an independent state was unavoidable. Indeed, after Josiah’s death the people soon reverted to idolatry. Jeremiah was shocked by the new relapse of his people and strove hard to stem the tide of spiritual depravity which was threatening to undermine their high moral standards.” –from a Chabbad web site

      • Mooser on May 22, 2018, 12:04 pm

        Jeremiah? I never understood a single word he said.

      • RoHa on May 23, 2018, 12:52 am

        Good friend, though. And fine wine.

    • Citizen on May 21, 2018, 5:32 pm

      globally orientated visions, visionaries, prophets? Makes me think of that old adage about a prophet never being welcomed or accepted as such in his own country, or by his own nation, etc.

  2. Robert767 on May 19, 2018, 10:35 pm

    I am aware that this site is aimed-although not exclusively- at a Jewish audience but I find it hard to understand how the writer can still assert Jewish Israeli suffering when discussing 70 years of occupation,subjugation and periodic slaughter of PALESTINIANS.

    • m1945 on May 20, 2018, 8:15 pm

      Palestinians have been oppressing Jews for centuries.

      In 1839, the British consul, William Young, said that the poor Jew in Jerusalem…lives from day to day in terror of his life….Young attributed the plight of the Jew in Jerusalem to “the blind hatred and ignorant prejudice of a fanatical populace,”

      New York Times December 29, 1878
      Crowded together in the worst lodgings, or in the dark cellars under a synagogue building, without food, fuel, or water –even water at Jerusalem being a commodity of price – numbers died of starvation and various diseases, while others went raving mad. Those who could labor were denied employment by the bigotry of the Mussulmans and of the Oriental Christians.

      Notice the date. This was before the first Zionists arrived in Palestine. Notice the word bigotry.

      Jews had lived for centuries in Hebron & Gaza until they were ethnically cleansed from those areas in 1929.
      During the week of riots from 23 to 29 August, 133 Jews were killed by Arabs and 339 others were injured,

      and now Palestinians oppress Israelis

      Running over Israelis is oppression.
      Stabbing Israelis is oppression.
      Shooting Israelis is oppression.
      Firing rockets at Israelis is oppression.
      Blowing up Israelis is oppression.
      Throwing rocks at Israelis is oppression.

      • annie on May 21, 2018, 3:40 am

        jack, although that may have been published in the nyt on december 29th, 1878, the only copy of the text i found on my brief search was published the month before on november 30, 1878 by The Saturday Review of Politics, Literature, Science and Art, Volume 46,+or+in+the+dark+cellars+under+a+synagogue+building,+without+food,+fuel,+or+water+%E2%80%93even+water+at+Jerusalem+being+a+commodity+of+price+%E2%80%93+numbers+died+of+starvation+and+various+diseases,+while+others+went+raving+mad.+Those+who+could+labor+were+denied+employment+by+the+bigotry+of+the+Mussulmans+and+of+the+Oriental+Christians.&source=bl&ots=8k_M3bIWE5&sig=QwydKe56qHdsvTuVFwpw6qstTMs&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjVkIWwnZbbAhUSB3wKHdOYBJAQ6AEINTAC#v=onepage&q=Crowded%20together%20in%20the%20worst%20lodgings%2C%20or%20in%20the%20dark%20cellars%20under%20a%20synagogue%20building%2C%20without%20food%2C%20fuel%2C%20or%20water%20%E2%80%93even%20water%20at%20Jerusalem%20being%20a%20commodity%20of%20price%20%E2%80%93%20numbers%20died%20of%20starvation%20and%20various%20diseases%2C%20while%20others%20went%20raving%20mad.%20Those%20who%20could%20labor%20were%20denied%20employment%20by%20the%20bigotry%20of%20the%20Mussulmans%20and%20of%20the%20Oriental%20Christians.&f=false

        and it appears the there’s more text for background here. it claimed the turkish government taxed the jews of jerusalem to be able to wail at the wall (pray) but that jews:

        They receive however, from collections regularly levied by their messengers, among the Jews all over the world, a considerable revenue to support their own synagogues and to relieve any cases of poverty. It seems the Ashkanaz Jews, about half as numerous as the Sephardin, did not share in these benefits; and many of them having come to the Holy City as pilgrims, were forbidden by the Rabbinical pedantry to work at common trades for their living. The consequence was that they fell into such abject wretchedness as it is painful to read of. Crowded together in the worst lodgings, or in the dark cellars under a synagogue building, without food …(con’t)

        just wondering if the nyt published that part, and if not why not? and doesn’t it make sense, that if the rabbinical authority in the holy city forbade the ashkanaz jews to work, the muslim and christian authorities in the holy city, likely having long term relations with the rabbinical authority, would respect that rabbinical authority? just as that rabbinical authority might also expect the muslim and christian authority to respect their rulings over their own flock? might that not have been the reason “the Mussulmans and of the Oriental Christians” did not employ the ashkanaz jews who were living in horrific conditions in the dark cellars beneath the very well funded synagogue?

        so why do you think the Sephardin rabbinical authorities forbade the ashkanaz jews to work? wouldn’t that be a worthy line of questioning under the circumstance? or are you going to chalk this up to anti semitism, again? and if you are, why not accuse the Sephardin rabbinical of anti semitism?

      • annie on May 21, 2018, 3:57 am

        and i’d like to add, regarding your claim Notice the date. This was before the first Zionists arrived in Palestine, this is incorrect. the history of zionism:

        Zionism as an organized movement is generally considered to have been founded by Theodor Herzl in 1897. However, the history of Zionism began earlier and is related to Judaism and Jewish history. The Hovevei Zion, or the Lovers of Zion, were responsible for the creation of 20 new Jewish settlements in Palestine between 1870 and 1897.[1]

        1870, well before the time stamp on that article. and isn’t it possible, in fact quite likely, the Sephardin of jerusalem were not zionists and didn’t want the zionist Ashkanaz Jews flocking into jerusalem? and by forbidding them employment might discourage them from staying and not laying down roots? just food for thought.

      • annie on May 21, 2018, 4:06 am

        jack, this claim of yours: In 1839, the British consul, William Young, said that the poor Jew in Jerusalem…lives from day to day in terror of his life….Young attributed the plight of the Jew in Jerusalem to “the blind hatred and ignorant prejudice of a fanatical populace,” is not true. it’s dershowitz lies previously debunked. twisting joan peter, probably the most discredited author on the history of the region, he lifted sections of her already compromised text and then thwarted it:

        Alan Dershowitz Exposed: What if a Harvard Student Did This?
        On February 8, 2003

        in palestine, [it] was reported: “it is a fact that the jewish subjects…do not enjoy the privileges granted to them….this evil may in general be traced …: i. to the absence of an adequate protection whereby they are more exposed to cruel and tyrannical treatment. ii. to the blind hatred and ignorant prejudices of a fanatical populace….iv. to the starving state of numerous jewish population.” (p. 188; peters’s emphasis)
        source cited: wm. t. young to viscount canning, january 13, 1842.

        vs lying dershowitz:

        several years later, the same consul attributed the plight of the jew in jerusalem to “the blind hatred and ignorant prejudice of a fanatical populace,” coupled with an inability of the poverty-stricken jewish community to defend itself either politically or physically. (p. 20)
        source cited: wm. t. young to viscount canning, january 13, 1842.

      • RoHa on May 21, 2018, 8:06 am

        “Palestinians have been oppressing Jews for centuries”

        Let us suppose, for one giddy moment, that this is actually true.

        It means that the Zionists encouraged Jews to migrate to a place where they would be oppressed. At least foolish, if not downright evil.

        (And, of course, that oppression did not give foreign Jews any rights to Palestine whatsoever.)

        “and now Palestinians oppress Israelis.”

        The poor dears. Those helpless Israelis should flee to somewhere safe. I would recommend the USA or Canada. (But not Australia.)

      • on May 21, 2018, 10:57 am

        Palestinians oppressing Jews for centuries? I thought we didn’t exist – that there were no Palestinians up until a few decades ago. A vile Zionist Jew even published a book on Palestinian history that had nothing but blank pages.

        Get your arguments lined up and try to stay consistent to what your keepers propagate. Also, thanks for being so simple minded and daft – it gives us all hope

      • eljay on May 21, 2018, 12:50 pm

        || Jack Green: … Palestinians oppress Israelis

        Running over Israelis is oppression.
        Stabbing Israelis is oppression.
        Shooting Israelis is oppression.
        Firing rockets at Israelis is oppression.
        Blowing up Israelis is oppression.
        Throwing rocks at Israelis is oppression. ||

        The rapist kidnaps women, chains them in his basement and routinely beats and rapes them. The women slap, scratch, punch and spit at the rapist. According to Zionist “logic”, the victims are oppressing the rapist.

      • Marnie on May 22, 2018, 1:06 pm

        Hebron again? You aren’t going to get any sympathy with your BS.

    • echinococcus on May 20, 2018, 11:48 pm

      I am aware that this site is aimed-although not exclusively- at a Jewish audience

      Very observant, although the non-exclusivity still has to be proved.

      • annie on May 21, 2018, 2:51 am

        proven? why and for whom?

  3. Elizabeth Block on May 20, 2018, 10:32 am

    “Europe continues to buy Israeli arms battle tested on Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza. In the near future this will include some of Israel’s war innovations during the last weeks in Gaza. ”

    Yes. Who will be the next to use butterfly bullets, which shatter limbs and organs? Tarek Loubani will be able to walk again because he was shot in the legs with ordinary bullets.
    Dum-dum (expanding) bullets were outlawed in the 19th century. It looks like butterfly bullets are even worse.

    • Marnie on May 22, 2018, 12:58 pm

      This is nothing less than pure evil. I can’t fathom what it takes to determine that its perfectly fine to use ‘butterfly’ bullets; and then to be so sick as to give them a name so deceptively benign. God, if you’re listening, please help.
      The entire world is complicit in the occupation and murder of palestinians. There are no excuses. No one can claim ‘we didn’t know’. Everyone knows; few care.

      • mondonut on May 22, 2018, 2:09 pm

        You cannot fathom it because it is not happening. There are no “butterfly” bullets in use by Israel.

      • echinococcus on May 22, 2018, 10:19 pm

        The Nut

        Says there are no butterfly bullets in use by Israel.
        No, they are bumblebee bullets, hummingbird bullets that play a delightful ballet, tracing a gossamer web of their gracious trajectories.
        Anyway, no matter the type of bullets, be they explosive, corrosive or even plain vanilla, each one fully deserves the hanging in Nuremberg the hanging of whoever shot it, ordered it and approved it.

        Should I add the Scleichers of the situation, Mr. Schleicher-Nut?

      • Marnie on May 23, 2018, 2:52 am

        Read between the lines dickhead. ‘israel’ has been commiting war crimes for decades.

      • mondonut on May 23, 2018, 12:28 pm

        @ Marnie

        Read between the lines of obvious lies? Whatever for?

    • on May 27, 2018, 1:39 pm

      No limits to their lust for supremacy and hatred of Palestinians.

  4. inbound39 on May 22, 2018, 6:41 pm

    There are plenty of reports by medical staff on the internet of IDF using Butterfly bullets I suggest you educate yourself.

  5. niass2 on May 27, 2018, 4:50 pm

    “They are experts in knowing who Jews were. They seem unaware of who we have become.”

  6. gamal on May 30, 2018, 6:10 am

    “the historical judgment is certain. Let’s be honest”

    an old acquaintance of my family Ziauddin Sardar spoke with Andre Vlitchek and is quoted in this latest piece

    “When the Saudi Crown Prince gave an interview to the Washington Post, declaring that it was actually the West that encouraged his country to spread Wahhabism to all corners of the world, there was a long silence in almost all the mass media outlets in the West, but also in countries such as Egypt and Indonesia.”

    Sardar remarks

    “Trust between Islam and the West has indeed been broken… We need to realize that colonialism did much more than simply damage Muslim nations and cultures. It played a major part in the suppression and eventual disappearance of knowledge and learning, thought and creativity, from Muslim cultures. The colonial encounter began by appropriating the knowledge and learning of Islam, which became the basis of the ‘European Renaissance’ and ‘the Enlightenment’ and ended by eradicating this knowledge and learning from both from Muslim societies and from history itself. It did that both by physical elimination – destroying and closing down institutions of learning, banning certain types of indigenous knowledge, killing off local thinkers and scholars – and by rewriting history as the history of western civilization into which all minor histories of other civilization are subsumed.”

    “As a consequence, Muslim cultures were de-linked from their own history with many serious consequences. For example, the colonial suppression of Islamic science led to the displacement of scientific culture from Muslim society. It did this by introducing new systems of administration, law, education and economy all of which were designed to impart dependence, compliance and subservience to the colonial powers. The decline of Islamic science and learning is one aspect of the general economic and political decay and deterioration of Muslim societies. Islam has thus been transformed from a dynamic culture and a holistic way of life to mere rhetoric. Islamic education has become a cul-de-sac, a one-way ticket to marginality. It also led to the conceptual reduction of Muslim civilization. By which I mean concepts that shaped and gave direction to Muslim societies became divorced from the actual daily lives of Muslims – leading to the kind of intellectual impasse that we find in Muslim societies today. Western neo-colonialism perpetuates that system.”

    when it comes to judgement there is going to be one long queue outside Mr. History’s office.

    • Keith on May 30, 2018, 10:25 am

      GAMAL- (Sadar quote)- “We need to realize that colonialism did much more than simply damage Muslim nations and cultures. It played a major part in the suppression and eventual disappearance of knowledge and learning, thought and creativity, from Muslim cultures.”

      That is both true and not fully appreciated. Too many of us criticize Third World countries for their present social conditions which, in fact, are a consequence of imperial polices imposed upon them. We tend to blame them for what we did to them. Furthermore, it has been consistent Western policy to retard Third World development to keep them subservient to Western corporate business objectives.

      • gamal on May 30, 2018, 2:17 pm

        Hi Keith

        so many issues relate to this but if you in to education related stuff, i am rushed, i have link about Chris Searle and the school strike in support of him it strikes at the heart of what are still very current issues heres a link etc look in to it if you like, to the struggle for education against employer led and government monitored training.

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