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Canada’s shameful position on the Palestinian refugees

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Canadian governments have a woeful record at supporting the rights of Palestinian refugees and the current government is no different. Instead of supporting Palestinian refugees’ internationally recognized right of return, successive governments have actively undermined that right, including the current Trudeau government. With the right of return under renewed attack from Trump’s “Deal of the Century” it is essential that activists make clear Palestinian rights are not for sale.

My experience as a Palestinian refugee started when I was in my mother’s womb, as Zionist terrorist groups chased my parents out of Yafa (Jaffa) in 1948 where my father was working and my mom was about to deliver their first child. They fled to go live in our hometown of Bethlehem. We were displaced again, a second time, after the Israeli aggression of June 5, 1967. Those pictures of young and old going across what was then called the “Allenby Bridge” was my lived experience.

Since I was a young man, I always dreamed and hoped that I will return to live in my hometown where I was born and raised. In diaspora I still hold on to the deed to our family property in Bethlehem, passed down to me from my grandfather Elias. The simple reason I am not there is that Israel refuses to allow Palestinian refugees to return to their ancestral land and properties, in violation of UN resolution 194.

Israel also refuses to allow “persons displaced as a result of the June 1967 and subsequent hostilities” to return, again contradicting a UN resolution that is passed annually with a large majority. Canada has also consistently voted against this specific resolution, even though Canada’s stated foreign policy hypocritically claims that “Canada does not recognize permanent Israeli control over territories occupied in 1967 … The Fourth Geneva Convention applies in the occupied territories and establishes Israel’s obligations as an occupying power…”

Israel not only blocks Palestinian refugees from returning, but according to a recent report, studied how to push them out in the first place (otherwise known as planned ethnic cleansing): “Newly-uncovered documents reveal how Israel established the ‘Professors Committee’ in the days following the occupation to devise policies to pacify the Palestinians and make them leave the West Bank and Gaza permanently.”

I expect such arrogant flaunting of UN resolutions from the supremacist regime in Israel that uprooted my people and committed genocide against my nation. But far more upsetting and dehumanizing are the positions of Canada, that played and continues to play a pivotal role in Palestinian dispossession.

Early support for Zionism

The Balfour declaration gave initial British support and the green light for Zionist colonization. Canada was an early support to this movement, and thus carries direct and moral responsibly for the Palestinian refugee tragedy. Here are just two examples of that support:

  • The late Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King who “was effusive with praise for Zionism when he addressed the Ottawa convention of the Zionist Federation of Canada on 4 July 1922…he applauded Britain efforts (Balfour Declaration) in aid of the Zionist cause.” (Canada and the Birth of Israel, David J. Bercuson, page 13).
  • Lester B. Pearson, Canada’s under secretary of state, was instrumental in ensuring the passage of the U.N. Partition Resolution in 1947 and Supreme Court of Canada Justice, Ivan C. Rand was a central figure in drafting it… “The Zionists were so grateful to Canada and to Mr. Pearson for the part he played in the whole process that they called him ‘the Balfour of Canada’.” (Report of the Canadian Standing Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs published June 1985, page 49).

On May 11, 1949, Canada co-sponsored the U.N. General Assembly resolution 273(111) to admit Israel as a state to the U.N. That resolution stated: “Recalling its resolution of 29 November 1947 [regarding the Partition Plan] and 11 December 1948 [regarding the Right of Return], and taking note of the declaration and explanation made by the representative of the government of Israel before the ad hoc Political committee in respect of the implementation of the said resolutions (my emphasis), the General Assembly … decides to admit Israel into the membership of the United Nations.” (explanation in brackets added by the author)

Israel never implemented the Partition Plan nor the Right of Return. It seems clear 70 years later that Canada never cared about the implementation of these resolutions, it only cared about admitting Israel to the UN, and supporting the Zionist agenda in establishing Israel.

Canada and the Right of Return

Since the Nakba of 1947/1948, Canada has not missed an opportunity to undermine the Palestinian Right of Return. Over the years there have been repeated reports that the Canadian government has sought to “resettle” Palestinian refugees in Canada, including an experimental attempt to do so in 1955. In addition, Canada’s contributions to the UNRWA have always been politically motivated, and have always been in the service of western imperial designs.

On March 25, 1955, before the House of Commons, Leader of the Conservative Opposition John Diefenbaker (who later became Prime Minister) clearly stated this regarding Canadian financial support for UNRWA at the time: “… certainly there is no sorer spot than these camps which, as one visits them and leaves them, cannot help but impress one with the awfulness of the situation in which these people find themselves. The minister mentioned Canada’s contribution, and I think that is one contribution that does leave an impression upon the people who receive it. In addition, it is building a bulwark against the spread of communism in these areas”

Eventually Canada reversed course on its policy of resettling Palestinian refugees out of an understanding that it was perceived as undermining Palestinian rights. The Canadian Standing Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs’ “Report on Canada’s Relations with the countries of the Middle East and North Africa” (June 1985, under the heading “Refugees”, page 115) stated: “The committee would not like to see Canada introduce a ‘designated class’ program for Palestinians as this would be perceived as a political gesture, and Canada’s intentions might be misunderstood in that politically sensitive part of the world.”

Yet, this duplicitous idea has not disappeared entirely, and has been mentioned several times in recent years in the context of U.S.-led peace process initiatives:

  • In January 2001, Palestinian demonstrators in Balata refugee camp near Nablus denounced Canada and Australia for their offer to resettle the Palestinian refugees, and that they burned an effigy of then Foreign Minister John Manley during this protest.
  • And most recently, on Sep.4, 2019 the Lebanese paper Al Akbar published an unconfirmed report that Canada, “has reached an understanding with the United States that it will receive 100,000 Palestinians: 40,000 from Lebanon and another 60,000 from Syria.” Sources in Lebanon were quoted as saying that part of the Trump administration’s ‘Deal of the Century’ aims “to resettle between 75,000 and 100,000 Palestinians in Lebanon and displace the rest to more than one country.” Understandably, the Liberal Canadian government denied it.

Liberal Party and Palestinian Rights

Some voices in the Palestinian and Arab community are trying to white-wash the record of the governing Liberal Party of Canada on Palestinian refugees by highlighting the example of their continued financial support to UNRWA.

This position was also advanced by Canadians for Justice and Peace in the Middle East (CJPME) when they issued a “2019 Elections Guide” which includes their evalution of major Canadian parties on 13 subjects including “Support for Palestinian Refugees”. They gave the Liberal Party a “B+” on this subject, with this explanation: “Harper had also cancelled its funding to UNRWA. Under the Trudeau government, however, this funding has been reinstated. While the Liberals have so far maintained their funding commitments to UNRWA, they have done little to work toward a permanent solution for Palestinian refugees. It is for this reason that the Liberals received a B+.”

Such a position woefully minimizes the dangers of the voting pattern of the Canadian government under the Liberal Party at the UN General Assembly, votes that accurately demonstrate their true position on Palestine. In fact, for the last four years, that pattern was remarkably similar to the Conservative Party’s “Shameful Record on Palestine”.

Liberal MP Anthony Housefather even bragged about the Liberal record saying: “We have voted against 87% of the resolutions singling out Israel for condemnation at the General Assembly versus 61% for the Harper government…” (Details on the voting records of Harper and Trudeau governments can be found here.)

Palestinian rights are not for sale

It is wrong to ignore the Canadian government’s political betrayal of Palestinian refugees as if our cause is simply a charitable one. The Palestinian people rejected the Trump’s administration’s $50 billion because it was meant to undermine our national rights. Financial aid to Palestinians is a positive thing only when it is does not accompany the sabotage of their inalienable rights.

The Liberal government’s commitment of $110 million to the UNRWA over four years should not be allowed to buy loyalty to a government that does not miss an opportunity to support Israel and works at every turn to undermine our legitimate rights and struggles. The Palestinian Right of Return is not for sale the same way Palestine is not for sale!

Finally, as the immortal Palestinian poet Mahmoud Darwish concluded in his masterpiece “Identity Card”: “Beware, beware of my hunger and anger”.

Hanna Kawas

Hanna Kawas is Chairperson of the Canada Palestine Association and co-host of Voice of Palestine.

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22 Responses

  1. eljay on September 30, 2019, 10:51 am

    It’s truly disappointing and disgraceful that Canadian leaders are bought, intimidated, brainwashed and/or otherwise persuaded:
    – to support Jewish / “Jewish State” supremacism (Zionism); and
    – to excuse, defend and/or justify the colonialism and (war) crimes Zionists and their supremacist construct have committed and continue to commit with impunity.

  2. lonely rico on September 30, 2019, 11:10 am

    Canada’s unwavering support for the establishment of the Zionist state of Israel and the seven plus decades of racist dispossession of the indigenous Palestinians is shameful in the extreme. Canadians believe their government’s foreign policy is on the side of international law, peace and justice, but in the case of Israel/Palestine this is gross and ugly hypocrisy. A detailed history of Canada’s support for Zionist racism, violence, and criminality can be read in –
    Canada and Israel: building apartheid/Yves Engler
    Not a comfortable read for Canadians who need to shed their illusions about the justice/virtue of Canada on the international stage, and the betrayal of the Palestinians by every Canadian government since 1947.

  3. oldgeezer on September 30, 2019, 3:30 pm

    Cotler, Levitt, Housefather, and Bronfman as the money bag man.

    Amusing how they regal each other as individuals who fight for human rights. They even managed to doctor up a case for an award to the head of ngo monitor. All the while standing clearly against the law and human rights and supporting a racist fascist state. As much as it pains me to say the nexus for these creeps seems to be McGill Uni.

  4. RoHa on October 1, 2019, 6:27 am

    “I expect such arrogant flaunting of UN resolution …”

    Flouting.

    • Mooser on October 1, 2019, 11:54 am

      “Flouting.”

      “RoHa”, do you know how to spell ‘supercilious’?

      • RoHa on October 1, 2019, 11:18 pm

        Spell and be.

        But I’m just trying to promote correct usage.

      • Mooser on October 2, 2019, 5:59 pm

        ” to promote correct usage.”

        Which is laudable. But it’s best to save corrections for mistakes which obscure the meaning of a sentence.

  5. Misterioso on October 1, 2019, 10:20 am

    Poll after poll has revealed that the great majority of Canadians support the Palestinians in their struggle against “Israel.” No surprise, given the fact that “Israel” is an expansionist illegal/brutal occupier and a well documented serial violator of hard won international humanitarian law. Indeed, “Israel” should have long since been expelled from the U.N.

    That Canada’s current Liberal government under Justin Trudeau is joined at the hip with “Israel,” makes one wonder how much he and his party receive in financial contributions from the pro-Zionist lobby.

    For the record:

    https://dimitrilascaris.org/2019/09/18/newly-disclosed-documents-reveal-the-depth-of-the-canadian-governments-devotion-to-israel-and-the-pro-israel-lobby-part-1/

    “Newly Disclosed Documents Reveal The Depth Of The Canadian Government’s Devotion To Israel And The Pro-Israel Lobby (Part 1)” by Dimitri Lascaris, Sept. 18/19

    EXCERPT:
    “As I reported in May of this year, the Center for Israel and Jewish Affairs (CIJA), Canada’s largest pro-Israel lobby organization, is one of the country’s most active and influential lobby groups.

    “Among other things, I documented in that report that, over a recent 12-month period, CIJA engaged in far more lobbying activity than the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, the Canadian Chamber of Commerce and the Canadian Bankers Association.

    “As part of my investigation into CIJA’s reach and influence, I sent an Access to Information and Privacy (ATIP) request to Global Affairs Canada (GAC) in May 2019. In that request, I sought production of all briefing products and memos from GAC for the use of Canada’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and/or Ambassador to Israel that relate to CIJA and that were generated from December 1, 2015 to the time of my ATIP request.

    “Days ago, GAC delivered to me 55 pages of documents that respond to my request. GAC’s disclosure includes numerous briefing documents and memos, some of which I will analyze in detail in a series of subsequent posts.

    “The focus of this post is a January 2017 briefing document prepared by GAC for Canada’s newly-appointed Foreign Minister, Chrystia Freeland.

    “Freeland replaced her predecessor, Stéphane Dion, on January 10, 2017.

    “CIJA wasted no time in lobbying Canada’s new Foreign Minister.

    “On January 31, 2017, a mere three weeks after her appointment, CIJA representatives held a telephone call with Freeland. To guide the new Foreign Minister, GAC staff prepared an 8-page briefing document for that telephone call.

    “The briefing document described CIJA as a ‘long-standing GAC interlocutor’ that ‘regularly meets with both departmental and ministerial officials on issues related to Canada’s policy toward Israel.’

    “The document also disclosed that CIJA officials were included in Prime Minister Trudeau’s delegation to Israel for the funeral of Shimon Peres in September 2016, and that CIJA regularly organizes tours of Israel and the West Bank for MPs. According to the document, the most recent tour occurred in that month (January 2017) and included seven MPs, three of whom are Liberals, three of whom are Conservatives, and one of whom (Ruth Ellen Brosseau) is from the NDP.

    “The briefing document advised Freeland that CIJA is ‘likely to seek your assurance that Canada remains committed to maintaining strong ties with Israel.’ It identified three ‘top line messages’ for the Minister to deliver to CIJA, all of which would have been music to CIJA’s ears:

    “The second of these messages – that Israel is ‘unfairly singled out for criticism’ – merits considerable scepticism.

    “For decades, the Canadian government has joined with virtually the entire international community in acknowledging that Israel’s West Bank settlements and its annexation of East Jerusalem and the Syrian Golan Heights violate international law. Indeed, the briefing document itself acknowledges the illegality of the settlements, and that a plan by Netanyahu’s government to create dozens of new settlements would violate international law and endanger the two-state solution:

    “Despite this acknowledgement, and despite Canada’s imposition of sanctions on 20 other states alleged by the Canadian government to be severe human rights violators (including Russia, Venezuela and Nicaragua), no Canadian government has ever imposed sanctions on Israel.

    “Israel thus holds a privileged position in Canadian foreign policy, and always has. The claim that Israel is ‘unfairly singled out for criticism’ is the precise opposite of the reality, particularly in Western nations.

    “The January 2017 briefing for Freeland also referred to the BDS movement, stating that ‘boycott does not bring us any closer to any solution to the conflict.’ The document failed, however, to explain how Israel could ever be persuaded to respect Palestinian human rights in the absence of sanctions.

    “The document also stated that Canada ‘strongly supports’ the IHRA definition of anti-Semitism — which numerous critics have denounced as a tool for the suppression of free speech – and that ‘opportunities are being sought to make our support of the definition more visible.’

    “Canada’s Foreign Ministry apparently thinks that the Trudeau government should be more ‘visible’ in its efforts to stifle criticism of Israel.

    “Disturbingly, the document also revealed that CIJA, whose singular mission is to preserve Canadian support for Israel’s abuses of Palestinian human rights, has a ‘close working relationship’ with GAC’s Office of Human Rights, Freedoms and Inclusion.”

  6. mondonut on October 1, 2019, 2:51 pm

    How horrible of Canada to offer a home (and future) to willing Palestinians who seek to escape the misery and deprivation of the camps inflicted on them by their Arab brothers. How despicable to permit willing Palestinians an opportunity to weaken the political clout of their activist brethren. Everyone knows the Palestinian politicians and NGO parasites need to feed off that misery. What nerve to appeal to free choice.

    And BTW, every dollar ever given to the UNRWA, from every source, have always been politically motivated.

    Also BTW, as having accepted a new country and homeland (a choice you would deny others), you are no longer a refugee.

    • eljay on October 1, 2019, 6:13 pm

      || mon donut: How horrible of Canada to offer a home (and future) to willing Palestinians who seek to escape the misery and deprivation of the camps inflicted on them by their Arab brothers. … ||

      It’s not nearly as horrible as Partition-borders Israel’s refusal:
      – to repatriate its refugees; and
      – to allow Partition-borders Palestine to emerge as an independent state and repatriate its refugees.

      || … Also BTW, as having accepted a new country and homeland … you are no longer a refugee. ||

      I agree.

      Also BTW, when you are centuries removed from geographic Palestine – assuming that you actually have even the remotest of ties to the region – it’s laughable to pretend that your choice to embrace the religion-based identity of Jewish magically transforms you into an “exile” or an “Ancient Israelite” or that geographic Palestine is your ancient / historic / eternal / lost / one true homeland.

      (Same applies to any person or group similarly removed from any region.)

    • hai_bar on October 1, 2019, 6:16 pm

      “How horrible of Canada to offer a home (and future) to willing Palestinians who seek to escape the misery and deprivation of the camps inflicted on them by their Arab brothers. ”

      Are you real?

      • Mooser on October 2, 2019, 6:02 pm

        “Are you real?”

        Zionism is trolling. It is the only form of communication known to it.

  7. Ottawa observer on October 1, 2019, 5:05 pm

    Surveys show Canadians do not like Israel very much. A BBC survey a couple of years ago found that twice as many Canadians had a negative view of Israel as those with a positive view.
    They also don’t like the occupation of the West Bank and many would agree with putting pressure on Israel to end it.

    However, most Canadians, and ALL political parties agree with the basic idea of a Jewish State. Most see it as necessary to protect Jews. (I don’t agree, of course, but that is the majority view). This is the fundamental idea of modern Zionism.

    Those who think Israel must remain a state for Jews will not support the right of return, whether or not international law or elementary fairness demands it.

    That is why the Canadian government will give modest (humanitarian) support to UNRWA, but will not support the right of return in any meaningful way.

    • eljay on October 1, 2019, 6:58 pm

      || Ottawa observer @ October 1, 2019, 5:05 pm ||

      It’s a shame that “most Canadians, and ALL political parties” hypocritically choose Jewish / “Jewish State” supremacism and related “necessary evil” over human rights, international laws and the consistent and universal application of justice, accountability and equality.

      • Ottawa observer on October 3, 2019, 8:52 pm

        Hey eljay, Just because we don’t agree with them, doesn’t make them hypocritical.

        All political positions end up balancing contradictory claims/rights/pressures. (Your right to bear arms vs my right to walk freely in my city at night. etc)

        Liberal Zionists feel that the objective of protecting Jews (whom they feel need perennial state protection) is so important, that it trumps the rights of Palestinians.

        That is the essence of Zionism

      • eljay on October 4, 2019, 7:32 am

        || Ottawa observer: Hey eljay, Just because we don’t agree with them, doesn’t make them hypocritical. … ||

        I know, and I didn’t state or even suggest that they’re hypocrites because we disagree with them.

        || … All political positions end up balancing contradictory claims/rights/pressures. (Your right to bear arms vs my right to walk freely in my city at night. etc) … ||

        There’s no contradiction between the right to bear arms and the right to walk freely, and there’s no hypocrisy to consistently supporting both rights.

        || … Liberal Zionists feel that the objective of protecting Jews … trumps the rights of Palestinians. … ||

        All men are equal, but some men are more equal than others – yeah, there’s nothing hypocritical about that.

  8. Misterioso on October 1, 2019, 10:17 pm

    @mondonut

    “How horrible of Canada to offer a home (and future) to willing Palestinians who seek to escape the misery and deprivation of the camps inflicted on them by their Arab brothers.”

    Utter bull crap!!
    Reality:

    Briefly:
    In December 1947, a Jewish official with the Palestine government was asked by Glubb Pasha, the famous British commander of Jordan’s Arab Legion if he was concerned about the fact that the Jewish state would have so many Arab inhabitants. The official replied: “Oh no! That will be fixed. A few calculated massacres will soon get rid of them.” (Sir Bagot Glubb, A Soldier with the Arabs, London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1957, p. 81)

    In 1949, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA)[1] conducted a methodical survey that determined at least 726,000 Palestinians were made refugees during and just prior to the 1948 Arab/Israeli war. As this figure did not include several thousand unregistered refugees, the generally accepted total was revised to 750,000. However, according to an official with Israel’s government at the time, even this number is too low: “Walter Eytan, then Director General of the Israeli Foreign Ministry, referred to the UNRWA registration of 726,000 [refugees] as ‘meticulous’ and believed that the ‘real number was close to 800,000’.” (Norman Finkelstein, “Debate on the 1948 Exodus” Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. XXI, number 1, autumn, 1991, footnote #4, p. 86.)

    On May 15/48, Israeli forces quickly conquered West Jerusalem which, including about 30,000 evicted the previous March, resulted in the expulsion of a total of over 60,000 Palestinians from the city and its environs to East Jerusalem, Ramallah and Bethlehem in the West Bank or across the border into Jordan. “[O]nly about 750 non-Jews remained in the area.” (The Fall of the New City,” by Nathan Krystall, Jerusalem 1948: The Arab Neighbourhoods and their Fate in the War, The Institute of Jerusalem Studies & Badil Resource Center, ed. Salim Tamari, 1999, pp. 111 and 134) Palestinians expelled from West Jerusalem would never be permitted to return.

    Between passage of the recommendatory only UNGA Partition Plan (Res. 181) and the declaration of the state of Israel effective 15 May, 60,000 Palestinians were expelled from Haifa by Zionist forces as were 75,000 from Jaffa in late April and early May. Many other Palestinian towns and villages were violently depopulated by Zionist forces and several documented massacres of Palestinians were carried out by Jewish forces, e.g., Deir Yassin.

    To again quote eye-witness, Glubb Pasha, commander of the Arab Legion: “The story which Jewish publicity at first persuaded the world to accept, that the Arab refugees left voluntarily, is not true. Voluntary emigrants do not leave their homes with only the clothes they stand in. People who have decided to move do not do so in such a hurry that they lose other members of their family – husband losing sight of his wife, or parents of their children. The fact is that the majority left in panic flight, to escape massacre. They were in fact helped on their way by the occasional massacres…just enough to keep them running.” (John Bagot Glubb, A Soldier With the Arabs, London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1957)

    To quote John H. Davis, who served as Commission General of UNRWA at the time: “An exhaustive examination of the minutes, resolutions, and press releases of the Arab League, of the files of leading Arabic newspapers, of day-to-day monitoring of broadcasts from Arab capitals and secret Arab radio stations, failed to reveal a single reference, direct or indirect, to an order given to the Arabs of Palestine to leave. All the evidence is to the contrary; that the Arab authorities continuously exhorted the Palestinian Arabs not to leave the country…. Panic and bewilderment played decisive parts in the flight. But the extent to which the refugees were savagely driven out by the Israelis as part of a deliberate master-plan has been insufficiently recognized.” (John H. Davis, The Evasive Peace, London: Murray, 1968)

    Mr. Davis’s observations are confirmed by the IDF Intelligence Branch Report dated 30 June 1948, entitled “The Arab Exodus from Palestine in the Period 1 December 1947 to 1 June 1948.” After studying the document, Israeli historian Benny Morris stated that “the Intelligence Branch report…goes out of its way to stress that the [Palestinian] exodus was contrary to the political-strategic desires of both the Arab Higher Committee and the governments of the neighboring Arab states. These, according to the report, struggled against the exodus – threatening, cajoling, and imposing punishments, all to no avail.” (Benny Morris, “The Causes and Character of the Arab Exodus from Palestine: The Israel Defense Force Intelligence Board Analysis of June 1948,: Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. XXII, no. 1, January 1986)

    On 5 June 1967, Israel launched a massive land and air war against Egypt and thereby, Jordan and Syria who shared mutual defence pacts with Egypt. The war ended with Israel occupying the rest of Palestine (East Jerusalem/the Old City, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) as well as Syria’s Golan Heights, Lebanon’s Shebaa Farms and Egypt’s Sinai.

    The 1967 war also “…left in its wake 210,000 new refugees, and again made homeless another 113,000 Palestinians who had already been refugees from the 1948 war.” (Donald Neff, Fallen Pillars, Institute for Palestine Studies Washington, D.C. 1995, p. 81) Of those families that managed to remain, many found themselves destitute because they had lost their men-folk during the war. 100,000 Syrians and 35,000 Egyptians were also expelled from Sinai and the Golan Heights and made into refugees. (Frank Epp, Whose Land Is Palestine? McClelland and Stewart Limited, Toronto and Montreal, 1970, p. 215) Harvard Professor Walid Khalidi puts the number of Syrians expelled from the Golan Heights at 120,000. “The Prospects of Peace in the Middle East,” Journal of Palestine Studies, Winter 2003, p. 53)

    During the years immediately after the 1967 war, Israel’s brutal occupation of the West Bank, East Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip, together with its illegal confiscation of land and dynamiting of homes, caused more than 200,000 additional Palestinians to flee, further swelling the refugee population. “These were followed in subsequent years by individual expulsions. Thus, the total number of [Palestinians] who fled their homes or were expelled in this second exodus, was about 416,000 persons. This does not include Syrians expelled from the Golan Heights and Egyptians from the Sinai Peninsula.” (Sami Hadawi, Bitter Harvest, p. 146)

    • mondonut on October 2, 2019, 12:39 am

      @Misterioso , blah, blah, blah

      As usual, a pile of off-topic quotes and zero original thought that in no way addresses my comment. And BTW, please ask someone for help in figuring out how to use the Reply feature.

    • jon s on October 2, 2019, 2:35 am

      Once again Misterioso produces a dubious quote: “A few calculated massacres …” An unnamed “Jewish official” decided to share with Glubb, of all people , the intention to perpetrate massacres. How much sense does that make?

      • Mooser on October 2, 2019, 11:25 am

        “How much sense does that make?” “Jon s”

        You can take that up with Hodder & Stoughton, 1957, p. 81

  9. Vera Gottlieb on October 6, 2019, 11:58 am

    As a Canadian I hate to say this…but I will: puppet on the American string.

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