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The Chanukah of fire and occupation (is not about ancient times)

on 35 Comments

Chanukah is generally known as a ‘holiday of light’. But the Chanukah celebrated this week should not be disconnected completely from the fire and widespread Palestinian protests against Trump’s recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. The Israeli response has been expectedly brutal, even involving attempts to kidnap children aged 7-8, far under the Israeli legal age of criminal responsibility– 12 (as B’tselem has documented). On Friday, Ibraheem Abu Thurayeh, a man with no legs, was shot dead alongside several others protesting near the Gaza fence. He was armed with a wheelchair and a flag. A spokesman for the Israel Defence Force said: “During the violent riots IDF soldiers fired selectively towards the main instigators.” So Abu Thurayeh simply didn’t survive the ‘selection’.

The story of Chanukah itself is a story of liberation in 165 BC from non-Jewish coercion under Syrian-Greco-Hellenic-Roman rule (per My Jewish Learning).

The Jewish temple in Jerusalem was allegedly defiled by this influence, and was liberated by the Maccabees. ‘Chanukah’ means ‘inauguration’ in Hebrew, referring to the re-inauguration of the altar. The traditional lighting of the Chanukah-menorah with its 8 candles (plus one to light the others with), alludes to an alleged miracle: that when the temple was liberated, there was only oil left for one day’s lighting of the Menorah, but by miracle, it lasted for 8 days.

We like to think of holiday traditions as detached from politics. But they are often related to politics in their very essence. Chanukah was a political-religious rebellion of Jews against a kind of occupying power.

President Trump’s recent recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, is also being celebrated as a religious-political issue, of supposed ‘liberation’. This notion, of ‘liberation’ on behalf of the Jewish State, is even voiced by Israeli leftists such as former Prime Minister Ehud Barak, who also mourns that the recognition didn’t come already 65 years ago.

But it is very clear by international law that Israel is an occupying power. The only way you can claim that Israel is ‘liberating’ is by alluding to the mythical ‘eternal promise’ to the Jews by God.

Whilst the rebellion of the Maccabees against the Syrians involved armed force, Palestinians may not revolt. Even a wheelchair and a flag presents existential danger.

In his scathing critique of the ‘recognition-celebration’ in the orthodox Jewish community, Michael Lesher writes in The Forward: “Orthodox Jews should mourn Trump’s Jerusalem declaration — not cheer it on”. He notes:

Jonathan Sacks, former Chief Rabbi of the United Kingdom, exulted that East Jerusalem under Israeli rule is “one of the few places in the Middle East where Jews, Christians and Muslims are able to pray in freedom, security and peace.” In the real world, one of Israel’s first acts as occupier was the destruction of the entire Mughrabi Quarter, including an ancient mosque, to clear space for Jews near the Western Wall; and the violent harassment of Palestinian worshipers at Al-Aqsa is a matter of record.  

Ariel Gold notes on this site, how Trump’s ‘Jerusalem declaration’ has largely united Democrats with Republicans. That’s the mystic power of ‘unification’ that this ‘united (Jewish) capital’ holds.

There will hardly be any protest in Israel about this. As Haaretz journalist Gideon Levy wrote last week:

Just imagine millions of Israeli, Jews and Arabs, marching together against Trump’s decision. What an effect this would have, here in Israel and around the world. What an embarrassment it would be to Trump, who is convinced that he is bestowing good upon Israel but is actually corrupting and drugging it even more. What a success that would have been. But there’s no chance of that happening. The number of Israelis who’d be interested could fit in a phone booth. That’s why the masses will once again shout on Rothschild Boulevard, “We’re fed up with your corruption,” and will once again marvel at themselves and their consciences.

So, can we really celebrate Chanukah as something completely detached from this current reality? Can we do so, when the reality of the occupation of Jerusalem includes a long record of Jewish terror against it, even specifically against Al-Aqsa, and even at the level of state – the Jewish State?   

Are these events as incidental to Chanukah as is the name of Israel’s 2008-9 onslaught on Gaza ‘Operation Cast Lead’? You may remember that it was initiated at this time of year, so the name alludes to the tops spun by Jewish children in Chanukah, traditionally made of cast lead.

Can today’s reality be detached from that of 165 BC, when you consider that Col. Ofer Winter (now Brig. General) called upon his Givati Brigade in the 2014 Gaza onslaught to “wipe out” an “enemy who defames” God? 

And is this ‘holy war’ really limited to Jewish Orthodox holy-warriors the likes of Winter, when secular ‘leftists’ such as ret. General Amiram Levin threaten to ‘tear the Palestinians apart’ and ‘toss them across the Jordan’, as he did in this week’s interview with Maariv?  

By calling itself ‘The Jewish State’, and by acting as it does, Israel offers Jews no choice. They cannot celebrate the Jewish holidays as a matter of the past, when Israel continuously presses its ‘Jewish liberation’ upon the besieged Palestinians. Jews celebrate their historical liberations, whilst Palestinians are crushed under the boot of the ‘most moral army’.

Had there not been a Jewish State, Jews could still be celebrating their ‘liberations’, under the notion and ethos that they are still escaping persecution – eternally so, as it were. But now Jews are being represented by a self-proclaimed ‘Jewish State’, which enacts most brutal policies, wherein feigning ‘self-defense’ is but a sad joke.

Zionism supposedly promoted the ‘strong Jew’. But the really strong Jews need to resist all this, vociferously.

It would be possible to celebrate Chanukah without having to consider all this. But not in this reality. Not this person. That day is yet to come.  

Jonathan Ofir

Israeli musician, conductor and blogger / writer based in Denmark.

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35 Responses

  1. Stephen Shenfield on December 17, 2017, 11:47 am

    The Maccabees rebelled against Hellenic coercion but themselves had no qualms about engaging in anti-Hellenic coercion, murdering Hellenic Jews and forcibly circumcising any uncircumcised Jews they came across. Neither side in the struggle upheld religious tolerance (unlike Genghiz Khan, for instance). For further discussion see:

    • echinococcus on December 17, 2017, 6:04 pm

      Neither side in the struggle upheld religious tolerance

      Let’s avoid sounding just like some Zbubble obscurantist screed, if you’ll pardon my butting in. One is flabbergasted: where is what religious intolerance in the Macedonian / Seleucid administration? In fact, that is a time of maximal tolerance to any and all crazes.

      The McCabs, now, are another story. They were not trying to oppose any “intolerance”: they were the Al Qa’ida and Daesh of their time, low brow murderers. What got their goat was the tolerance of the imperial government that would not dictate to people what superstition to follow, make believe or act delirious about. Just as it is for Daesh now.

      Come off “My Jewish Learning” that is spreading the Zaesh obscurantist gospel, indicting, just as the McCabs did, the Hellenistic tolerance and open mind as religious oppression or sumpin’. You could look up a couple of serious historians. If they must necessarily be “Jewish”to please anybody, no problem, many are.

    • jon s on December 18, 2017, 5:02 pm

      The Chabad website isn’t reliable, and has the dates wrong. The Hasmonean revolt broke out in 167 BCE, and the temple was cleansed and re-dedicated in 164 BCE, which is the event celebrated on Hanukkah.
      Judah was called “the Maccabee” (spelled with the Hebrew letter “kof”) probably in reference to “makevet”, a hammer. The acronym MCBY (withe the letter “kaf”) is a later take on his nickname.
      Stephen Shenfield is correct , the Hasmonean rebels were not upholders of religious tolerance. And not only did they circumcise uncircumcised Jews, but the next generation Hasmonean leader John Hyrcanus forcibly converted non-Jews such as the Idumeans (Edomites). (“I’ll cut off either your foreskins or your heads. Choose”.)
      Ironically , the Hasmonean dynasty itself became Hellenized.

      • Jonathan Ofir on December 19, 2017, 3:18 pm

        Dear jon s,
        Thank you for pointing all this out. Particularly the date appears clearly wrong in the formerly cited Chabad source. As you may see, we have amended this and used a shorter source (citing 165 BC nonetheless). Concerning the Maccabee with Kuf, this is new for me, and I simply did not have time to research this alternative version yet. But seeing that the mentioning of the MCBY (MKBY) acronym (or not) is such a side issue to the actual focus of the article (one that I anyway considered to drop at first), we now opted to take it completely out anyway.

        Also to other responders here, let it be noted, that the actual vein of the Maccabees, the question of their Zealotry etc. is still somewhat of a side issue in this article – its focus is not meant to be on Chanukah past as much as present times. According to the story passed down in Maccabim book, there was this prohibition of Jewish ritual at the time. This is what I am referring to in terms of ‘non-Jewish coercion’. That the Maccabees also practiced their own coercion is in this respect another matter. I am referring to how the holiday is traditionally perceived as a general notion.

        I admit that the far-back historical scrutiny was not sufficiently scrutinized by me. I am not writing it as a historian of ancient times, but as a commentator appraising present times with a reflection on tradition and cultural perception.

        Nonetheless, it is always good to learn more about that far past and fix inaccuracies. I’m therefore very appreciative of the critical and informed comments.

  2. Marnie on December 17, 2017, 12:01 pm

    A spokesman for the Israel Defence Force said: “During the violent riots IDF soldiers fired selectively towards the main instigators.” So Abu Thurayeh simply didn’t survive the ‘selection’.

    Amon Goeth lives.

    • oldgeezer on December 17, 2017, 12:56 pm


      That’s a rather kind and bland interpretation. They selectively fired. That is to say they picked out certain targets. The double amputee, holding a flag, was chosen to be killed. He was selected.

      And on a more general note why were they selecting civilians to be killed when they have so many nonlethal options available to them.


  3. Boris on December 17, 2017, 12:38 pm

    > He was armed with a wheelchair and a flag.

    Yet, from

    > He was carrying a slingshot and a small flag,” Nael said.

    So, which one is true. Will we learn next that he was carrying a Molotov cocktail, a Kalashnikov, a suicide vest?

    • Talkback on December 17, 2017, 4:24 pm

      Of course. Israel is allready investigating. So I guess they will find something that will justify the killing. If not they will claim that the Israel’s institutionalized terrorist was afraid. He was a sniper, they are afraid from far away.

    • Jonathan Ofir on December 17, 2017, 5:03 pm

      Boris, since you note the slingshot, let me say this:
      I had noticed the Mondoweiss article you mention after having submitted mine. But the mere notion of this as incriminating or justifying of the act of his murder, is just pathetic. You have to exaggerate it to egregious proportions to make it stick, but it doesn’t.

      Incidentally, having learned about the slingshot, I wrote the following little writing which I posted on my Facebook wall. I think it’s very relevant for your claim:

      The Palestinian Shaheed, Ibrahim Abu Thurayeh

      Ibrahim Abu Thurayeh, 29, lost his legs in 2008 whilst trying to replace an Israeli flag with a Palestinian one, at the Gaza fence which confines him to his open-air prison, or concentration camp. He was gunned by an Israeli helicopter.

      On Friday, he died after being sniped by an Israeli soldier with a bullet to the head. . He was protesting near the fence, on his wheelchair, armed with a small Palestinian flag, and reportedly even a slingshot.

      Abu Thurayeh is the embodiment of the Palestinian resiliance. His missing legs are a metaphor of the Israeli limiting of Palestinian freedom of movement. His regular participation in protests against his occupier, jailer and maimer, often at the front lines, is symbolic of the Palestinian defiance of this limitation and dehumanisation.

      His slingshot could even create an association for Jews, to the biblical story of David and Goliath. Goliath was a giant Philistine, and David was a young boy of Judea with a slingshot. The giant was defeated with a slingshot, a lethal shot to the head.

      But here’s where the analogy reverses – Israel, the Jewish State, is the Goliath. And Thurayeh’s pebble, even if he did shoot it, could not possibly be a real threat to the soldiers at a safe distance, behind protections of concrete. The stone in this case, is but a symbolic statement of defiance, feeble as it may be, against this mighty occupier. It is saying to the occupier: “You may have dispossessed us, ethnically cleansed us, occupied us and besieged us – but you did not take our courage away”.

      In this story, it was the Palestinian ‘David’ – Abu Thurayeh, who was shot in the forehead by a high-precision weapon. The Israeli military declared that there was ‘selective’ targeting, so Abu Turayeh was simply ‘selected’.

      Israel cannot feign to be the little David. No one wants to hear about the “existential danger” that Abu Thurayeh supposedly poses. If anything, he represents the embodiment of fearless resistance despite all odds, which is a highly provocative stance for Israeli soldiers. It makes them feel powerless, as they cannot even stop a man in a wheelchair. And that’s probably why Abu Thurayeh was murdered.

      • Jon66 on December 17, 2017, 5:30 pm

        Interesting take.

        When you get a chance, perhaps you can describe how the murder of Leon Klinghoffer, a 69 year old wheelchair bound American citizen, who was murdered by the Palestinian “resistance” solely because he was Jewish, reflects specifically upon the Palestinian “resistance” and more broadly on Palestinian societal values.

      • Boris on December 17, 2017, 6:03 pm

        So, Jonathan, you admit noticing the article mentioning a slingshot AFTER you wrote your piece. Meaning – you had written your antisemitic propaganda without having all the facts.

        I remember how during the Gulf war one of you kind was laughing at Israelis’ reaction to Saddam shooting rockets into Israel calling Squad missile “primitive”. Like – what’s a big deal?!

        So, on one hand you mention that this “protester” had just a mere slingshot (not a big deal), and then you recall that Biblical David killed Goliath with such weapon. Do you see a contradiction?

        From what I see, this weapon and its use was determined to be dangerous for the soldiers guarding the border. So, instead of indiscriminately shooting at all attackers, this attacker was selected and neutralized.

        And, or course, your use of the word “selection” was deliberate to bring comparison to the Nazi concentration camps. But I would like to point out to you that this fellow was not brought to the border by a locked car on a train. He came by his own volition, he chose to attack and he selected a weapon. Israelis only acted in self-defense and had no choice, but to neutralize this attacker.

        Thus, your comparison of Israelis to Nazis is invalid, and, based on EU definition of antisemitism, is antisemitic.

      • RoHa on December 17, 2017, 6:21 pm

        David was armed with a sling, not a slingshot.

        I would imagine that a man in a wheelchair would find it difficult to use a sling. A slingshot would be much easier to use.

      • echinococcus on December 18, 2017, 1:05 am

        The Borises and John66es may want to know that the invaded Palestinian people has an unrestricted right to resist by all available means and that the occupying uniformed murderers are officially free game, as active participants in crimes against humanity and war crimes.

        Why does anyone have to defend or minimize the use of fully legitimate resistance in any shape or form?

      • Jon66 on December 18, 2017, 7:44 am

        Klinghoffer was:
        1.An American
        2.Disabled and in a wheelchair
        3. On a passenger cruise ship

        How is his murder “resistance”?

      • Talkback on December 18, 2017, 8:59 am

        Boris: “Thus, your comparison of Israelis to Nazis is invalid, and, based on EU definition of antisemitism, is antisemitic.”

        Oh, there are more then one “definition”? Let me guess, two Zionists, three definitions? ROFL.

        But you ignore the main parts.
        1.) “Anti-Semitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred toward Jews.”
        2.) “Contemporary examples of anti-Semitism … COULD, TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE OVERALL CONTEXT; INCLUDE … Drawing comparisons of contemporary Israeli policy to that of the Nazis.”

        So first of all you have to prove that Jonathan made hateful remarks against Jews AS SUCH. And only then you can claim that these remakrs included a comparison of the policy of the terrorist wing of your beloved Apartheid Junta (whose spoke person spoke of “selective” targeting) to that of the Nazis.

        Or put it short: Where and how did Jonathan claim that Jews (as such) are Nazis?

      • Marnie on December 18, 2017, 10:04 am

        What does klinghoeffer have to do with abu thurayeh?

      • echinococcus on December 18, 2017, 11:42 am


        Who is ever speaking about Klinghoffer?
        Who said an American tourist on the high seas is the same as a Zionist invader -apart from you? Besides, we have inflicted enough damage on the world for making any US citizen of any religion or without religion a target of anyone driven to insanity by it.

        You really sound like some malignant Zionist, the way you distort discussions. To say nothing of the severe solipsism.

      • amigo on December 18, 2017, 11:48 am

        “Klinghoffer was:
        1.An American
        2.Disabled and in a wheelchair
        3. On a passenger cruise ship

        How is his murder “resistance”?”Jon 66

        Who said it was.

        Care to discuss the murder Count Bernadotte and Jewish resistance and more broadly , Jewish societal values.

        Or perhaps the planting of bombs on Arab buses and open markets and hotels etc etc .

        Or the murder of a Palestinian who was no longer a threat by an IDF medic .Jewish values , my ass.The same Jewish values that prompted his (Azaria) supporters to demand he be exonerated as they raised this murderer on high and treated him like a hero.

        Societal values my ass.

        Btw, Klinghoffer was murdered in 1985 and by my reckoning , Abu Thurayeh was not even born then.

        Poor zionists, tasked with defending the indefensible and they make such a hash of it.

      • gamal on December 18, 2017, 12:59 pm

        “the murder of Leon Klinghoffer, a 69 year old wheelchair bound American citizen”

        no link to the Opera?

      • Jon66 on December 18, 2017, 1:47 pm

        My fault.
        I thought the point of Mr. Ofir’s commnet above was that the death of this poor man was the embodiment of some larger point. That his disability and lack of threat was indicative of an issue with Israeli society. If that wasn’t the case, then I can see where Klinghoffer is irrelevant. If however, the death of this individual somehow symboloizes the ‘rot’ of Israel, then I do think Klinghoffer is relevant.

        Please see Echi’s comment where he justifies the targeting of any American.

      • amigo on December 18, 2017, 2:25 pm

        Please see Echi’s comment where he justifies the targeting of any American.” Jon 66

        He made no such comment prior to your inclusion of “Klinghoffer” into the discussion.

        He wrote the following in response to you.

        “Who said an American tourist on the high seas is the same as a Zionist invader -apart from you?”.

        He also referred to you distorting the discussion and you promptly provide more evidence .

        Israel needs no enemies with friends like you.

      • Maghlawatan on December 18, 2017, 3:25 pm

        This video represents the madness of Zionism. Poor Jon66 with his questions about Palestinian values. The mutant Judaism of Israel is the problem.

      • Jon66 on December 18, 2017, 4:34 pm

        My original referenced only Klinghoffer.
        Echi said, “The Borises and John66es may want to know that the invaded Palestinian people has an unrestricted right to resist by all available means and that the occupying uniformed murderers are officially free game, as active participants in crimes against humanity and war crimes.”
        I assumed that because he included me in his comment, he was referencing the murder of Klinghoffer. Why else include me in the comment? His subsequent comments reveal the intentions behind the prior.

      • Jon66 on December 18, 2017, 4:44 pm

        The video is heartbreaking. I can’t imagine the grief.

      • Jonathan Ofir on December 20, 2017, 4:28 am

        Boris has now accused me of “Antisemitic propaganda”.
        The proof:

        “[Y]our use of the word “selection” was deliberate to bring comparison to the Nazi concentration camps. But I would like to point out to you that this fellow was not brought to the border by a locked car on a train. He came by his own volition, he chose to attack and he selected a weapon. Israelis only acted in self-defense and had no choice, but to neutralize this attacker.

        Thus, your comparison of Israelis to Nazis is invalid, and, based on EU definition of antisemitism, is antisemitic.”

        The irony is, which seems to pass Boris over the head, is that the association to Nazis occurs in his own head. The use of the word “selection” is based directly upon the IDF statement concerning “selective” shootings.

        Imagine – Boris might be considered anti-Semitic himself, because he is comparing my paraphrase of IDF actual statement, to Nazis.

        It’s a funny game. I didn’t even have to use the euphemistic “concentration camp” as Haaretz journalist Amira Hass, I just applied a word used by the IDF spokesperson. Anyway, imagine the implications – Amira Hass – anti-Semitic; Prof. Yeshayahu Leibowitz – anti-Semitic for his “Judeo-Nazis”; Holocaust survivor and author Primo Levy on Begin; Mapam leader Aharon Zisling in 1948 on Dawaymeh massacre…

        But Boris got the association, and I’m obviously to blame, because I provoked it. How dare I.

    • Bumblebye on December 17, 2017, 8:57 pm

      wheelchair and flag. Plenty of stills and video of him all over in his last minutes. No sling I’ve seen.
      anyways, how many slingshot pebbles can reach across hundreds of yards of no-mans-land (as ordered by israel) and be able to cause more harm to iof thugs heavily covered in military issue?
      there were no violent riots, merely symbolic gestures. For that, israel murders?

    • Marnie on December 18, 2017, 12:31 am

      The reality is an amputee in a wheelchair holding a flag was executed by the IDF. I imagine one of those IDF chicken shits figured it was time for him to get his shot off and he chose one of the softest targets his numb nuts could find, Bore-is.

  4. JosephA on December 17, 2017, 1:25 pm


    Well written. Thank you. It’s a depressing reality.

  5. Danaa on December 17, 2017, 5:35 pm

    the closest modern day analogy to the maccabbees are the Taliban in Afganistan. Just like the Maccabbees the Taliban are a zealot military-religious fighting force, holy warriors so to speak, who are extremely intolerant of other religions and are totally committed to fighting an invading culture. The US, through its occupation force and alliances with the equivalent of Assyrians and other local tribes recepetive to “helenization”, is tnot unlike the conquering Greeks, who also sought to introduce a more modern culture into a highly illiberal and socio-economically inferior Judean peasant-like population.

    Indeed, based on all I read, the Jews of the then-Judea were very much like the current day Afganis – economically backward, spiritually insular, religiously intolerant and riveted by various tribal conflicts. They did not approve of artistic depictions, statues or dance. Not even songs, other than devotional ones.

    To celebrate Chanukah is like celebrating a Taliban victory – a momentary one. Indeed, i could never figure out what was so wonderful about that old Judea and I remember being rather repelled, as a school kid, by the brutality of the practices of the Hashmonaim (who later became a de-facto dictatorial power over Judea, a totally corrupt one). Sure, the Maccabbees were a warrior culture, and like all such, very radical – religiously and militarily. Not much into taking prisoners either.

    I now think that the religious extremism of some warrior cultures – be they hamas or Taliban – can be best understood when considering the context of having to fight against a vastly superior force, especially one that seeks to colonize both militarily and culturally.

    When i grew older and started to read more broadly, without having to put everything through the extremely narrow filter of israeli myths, I came to see Helenization as an attempt to unit diverse people under a more tolerant (give or take), more secular and more liberal umbrella. Sadlly for the hellenizers they also subscribed to something like a Neoliberal version of economics – a catch-all-you-can type, that deepened rather than lightened existing inequalities.

    In any case, as a child in israel, i would not sing any Chanukkah songs. I said I didn’t like to and couldn’t sing (not without some truth). Sometimes i would step out from the circle of singers, or put my head down in class so no one will see I don’t sing. Still I remember that in 6th or 7th grade I choreographed a victory dance for Channuka using the wedding march music. I liked warriors so I had my dancers dressed with shields and helmets. very Greek looking. I caught my then teacher looking sideways at me, seemingly perplexed. That’s all I remember of him – that puzzled look. That and visiting him once in a rehabilitation clinic after he was wounded in one war or another.

    There was However no one to talk to about the stirrings I felt against zealotry of any kind. Or about this feint – but growing – aversion to the whole Chanukkah concept based on idolizing an extremely intolerant and xenophobic streak of fanaticism, candles or no candles. Kids need symbols and feasts, but my child’s concerns were waived off as, well, childish.

    I now think they were anything but. May be it was vague foreboding of a dark future that the stories of the Maccabbes exploits conjured. Too vague to put into words. I just knew I didn’t want to sing those silly songs.

  6. JosephA on December 17, 2017, 10:13 pm

    Can anybody here take the racist Boris seriously? Advocating for the murder (yes, bullet to the head) of a man with a sling shot? Where are the water cannons? Where are the Israeli Ghandis? There are hundreds of thousands, in fact MILLIONS of Native Palestinian Ghandis, suffering and resisting (by trying to live a normal life under apartheid) every day. Israel is a very scary country, as are her racist (zionist) apologists.

    • echinococcus on December 18, 2017, 12:58 am

      Someone is in fact taking the racist Boris seriously: the MW minder who lets this open murder incitement pass, while strictly censoring remarks to the effect that the Palestinian people have the recognized right to resist by all available means. Again, it is deeply regrettable that it was a slingshot instead of a warplane full of all appropriate devices.

  7. Maghlawatan on December 18, 2017, 3:27 pm

    All of the Jewish holidays are incoherent in today’s Israel. Jews escaping from Pharaoh? Israel is Pharaoh.

  8. jon s on December 18, 2017, 4:19 pm

    The killing of Ibrahim Abu Thurayah is inexcusable and indefensible, slingshot or no slingshot. What threat did he pose?

    • annie on January 2, 2018, 10:32 pm

      thank you jon.

      • Mooser on January 3, 2018, 12:24 pm

        ” What threat did he pose?”

        Oh, about the same as a strange Eritrean man walking through Beersheba.

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